A period of extensive glaciation over large portions of earth's continents accompanied by reduced global temperature and changes in atmospheric circulation.
The boundary separating opposing flow directions of ice on a glacier or ice sheet.
Earthquakes that occur when the flow of the earth's mantle is subjected to heavy stresses and strains from the tremendous weight of an ice sheet.
Ice reservoirs that rest on top of ocean water and are part of a complex ice flow system where inland ice is discharged to the sea via relatively fast-moving ice streams. Because ice shelves rest on water, their melting would not directly affect sea level.
The replacement of hand tools by machine and power tools that led to the development of large-scale industrial production. Dating to about 1760 in England, it transformed centuries-old social and economic systems and is believed to be the primary cause of the historical rise in the air's CO2 content that has closely tracked its progression.
The part of a plant stem that exists between the locations where leaves are attached.
One of two great divisions of the animal kingdom, including all animals having no backbone or spinal column. It includes all animals except fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
A neck or narrow strip of land that connects two large bodies of land.
Isostatic Sea Level Change
Changes in sea level caused by the rising or falling of various portions of the earth's crust.
One of two or more forms of an element having the same atomic number but different atomic weights.
A study of the relative abundances of two or more forms of an element having the same atomic number but different atomic weights. The relative abundances of certain isotopes of certain elements of certain substances are often related to the temperatures at which the substances were produced; and they therefore are sometimes used to infer past environmental temperatures.