Percent Photosynthesis (Net CO2 Exchange Rate) Increases for
300, 600 and 900 ppm Increases in the Air's CO2 Concentration:


For a more detailed description of this table, click here.

Triticum aestivum L. [Common Wheat]


Statistics
 
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm
 Number of Results
111
 
4
 Arithmetic Mean
68.2%
 
79.8%
 Standard Error
8.5%
 
32.1%

Individual Experiment Results

Journal References

Experimental Conditions
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm

Agrawal and Deepak (2003)

open-top chambers, Malviya 234 cultivar
73%

 

 

Agrawal and Deepak (2003)

open-top chambers, Malviya 234 cultivar, elevated SO2
53%

 

 

Agrawal and Deepak (2003)

open-top chambers, HP 1209 cultivar
60%

 

 

Agrawal and Deepak (2003)

open-top chambers, HP 1209 cultivar, elevated SO2
48%

 

 

Balaguer et al. (1995)

controlled environment chambers,low ozone
40%

 

 

Balaguer et al. (1995)

controlled environment chambers,high ozone
37%

 

 

Brooks et al. (2000)

FACE experiment, low nitrogen
12%

 

 

Brooks et al. (2000)

FACE experiment, high nitrogen
24%

 

 

Bunce (1998)

field pots, temperature 10C
54%

 

 

Bunce (1998)

field pots, temperature above 30C
99%

 

 

Christ and Korner (1995)

hydroponics, 2 and 3 October
74%

 

 

Christ and Korner (1995)

hydroponics, 8 and 9 October
130%

 

 

De Mothes and Knoppik (1994)

growth chamber
7%

 

 

Del Pozo et al. (2005)

Plants grown from seed in two different years out-of-doors in temperature gradient tunnels at ambient temperatures without an extra N application of 70 kg/ha
27%

 

 

Del Pozo et al. (2005)

Plants grown from seed in two different years out-of-doors in temperature gradient tunnels at ambient temperatures with an extra N application of 70 kg/ha
36%

 

 

Del Pozo et al. (2005)

Plants grown from seed in two different years out-of-doors in temperature gradient tunnels at elevated (ambient + 4C) temperatures without an extra N application of 70 kg/ha
13%

 

 

Del Pozo et al. (2005)

Plants grown from seed in two different years out-of-doors in temperature gradient tunnels at elevated (ambient + 4C) temperatures with an extra N application of 70 kg/ha
49%

 

 

Delgado et al. (1994)

controlled chambers in a glasshouse
9%

 

 

Dijkstra et al. (1999)

open-top chambers and field-tracking sun-lit climatized enclosures, late spring
34%

 

 

Dijkstra et al. (1999)

open-top chambers and field-tracking sun-lit climatized enclosures, end of season
20%

 

 

Du Cloux et al. (1989)

pots (1.45 liter)
56%

 

 

Evans (1986)

pots (15-cm)
31%

 

 

Fujimura et al. (2010)

Photosynthesis of well watered and fertilized plants grown from the seedling stage to approximately 75 days after sowing at Sapporo, Japan, in pots filled with Andosol soil placed within controlled-environment chambers
65%

 

 

Fujimura et al. (2010)

Photosynthesis of plants grown from seed under standard field conditions within open-top chambers on the Lhasa Plateau in China (3688 m above sea level) to 79 days after sowing
87%

 

 

Garcia et al. (1998)

FACE
47%

 

 

Gutierrez et al. (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity out-of-doors in Salamanca, Spain, within chambers made of transparent polycarbonate walls and polyethylene sheet roofing
60.5%

 

 

Habash et al. (1995)

controlled environment chambers
38%

 

 

Hakala et al. (1999)

open-top chambers, ambient temperature
41%

 

 

Hakala et al. (1999)

open-top chambers, ambient + 3C temperature
34%

 

 

Harnos et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, beginning of flowering
38%

 

 

Harnos et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, beginning of grain filling
140%

 

 

Harnos et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, beginning of grain filling, leaf level 1
138%

 

 

Harnos et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, beginning of grain filling, leaf level 2
34%

 

 

Harnos et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, beginning of grain filling, leaf level 3
682%

 

 

Harnos et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, beginning of grain filling, leaf level 4
520%

 

 

Havelka et al. (1984)

field, open-top chambers, flagleaf
 

 

52%

Li et al. (2003)

Grown from seed in controlled environment chambers in pots filled with 3 kg of loess soil 60 days after sowing; well-watered (85-100% field capacity), no extra N
7%

 

 

Li et al. (2003)

Grown from seed in controlled environment chambers in pots filled with 3 kg of loess soil 60 days after sowing; well-watered (85-100% field capacity), extra 100 g N g-1
24%

 

 

Li et al. (2003)

Grown from seed in controlled environment chambers in pots filled with 3 kg of loess soil 60 days after sowing; well-watered (85-100% field capacity), extra 200 g N g-1
39%

 

 

Li et al. (2003)

Grown from seed in controlled environment chambers in pots filled with 3 kg of loess soil 60 days after sowing; water-stressed (45-60% field capacity), no extra N
18%

 

 

Li et al. (2003)

Grown from seed in controlled environment chambers in pots filled with 3 kg of loess soil 60 days after sowing; water-stressed (45-60% field capacity), extra 100 g N g-1
83%

 

 

Li et al. (2003)

Grown from seed in controlled environment chambers in pots filled with 3 kg of loess soil 60 days after sowing; water-stressed (45-60% field capacity), extra 200 g N g-1
64%

 

 

Liu et al. (2002)

field, Jingdong 8 cultivar
143%

 

 

Liu et al. (2002)

field, Nongda 139 cultivar
73%

 

 

Liu et al. (2002)

field, Yanda 1817 cultivar
63%

 

 

Martinez-Carrasco et al. (2005)

Photosynthesis of flag leaves of plants grown in the field in temperature (T) gradient tunnels in a Mediterranean environment at ambient T to the beginning of anthesis
9%

 

 

Martinez-Carrasco et al. (2005)

Photosynthesis of flag leaves of plants grown in the field in temperature (T) gradient tunnels in a Mediterranean environment at ambient T + 4C to the beginning of anthesis
40%

 

 

Martinez-Carrasco et al. (2005)

Photosynthesis of flag leaves of plants grown in the field in temperature (T) gradient tunnels in a Mediterranean environment at ambient temperature and low nitrogen fertilizer (80 kg N/hectare) nine days after anthesis
117%

 

 

Martinez-Carrasco et al. (2005)

Photosynthesis of flag leaves of plants grown in the field in temperature (T) gradient tunnels in a Mediterranean environment at ambient temperature and high nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg N/hectare) nine days after anthesis
17%

 

 

Martinez-Carrasco et al. (2005)

Photosynthesis of flag leaves of plants grown in the field in temperature (T) gradient tunnels in a Mediterranean environment at ambient temperature plus 4C and low nitrogen fertilizer (80 kg N/hectare) nine days after anthesis
-22%

 

 

Martinez-Carrasco et al. (2005)

Photosynthesis of flag leaves of plants grown in the field in temperature (T) gradient tunnels in a Mediterranean environment at ambient temperature plus 4C and high nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg N/hectare) nine days after anthesis
34%

 

 

McMaster et al. (1999)

growth chambers, tillering stage
40%

 

 

McMaster et al. (1999)

growth chambers, booting stage
34%

 

 

McMaster et al. (1999)

growth chambers, grain filling stage
34%

 

 

Mishra et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of well watered and fertilized plants of cultivar HUW-37 (dwarf variety) grown from seed out-of-doors in open-top chambers at the Botanical Garden of the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh in the eastern Gangetic plains of India between the months of December and March, with measurements being made 60 days after germination
30%

 

 

Mishra et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of well watered and fertilized plants of cultivar K-9107 (tall variety) grown from seed out-of-doors in open-top chambers at the Botanical Garden of the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh in the eastern Gangetic plains of India between the months of December and March, with measurements being made 60 days after germination
31%

 

 

Mitchell et al. (1999)

open-top chambers
48%

 

 

Monje and Bugbee (1998)

hydroponic chambers
 

 

13%

Osborne et al. (1998)

FACE, flag leaf
38%

 

 

Osborne et al. (1998)

FACE, 8th leaf
103%

 

 

Osborne et al. (1998)

FACE, 7th leaf
 

 

 

Pal et al. (2005)

Plants grown for 40 days in pots within open-top-chambers at low (75 kg/ha) soil nitrogen application
65%

 

 

Pal et al. (2005)

Plants grown for 40 days in pots within open-top-chambers at normal (150 kg/ha) soil nitrogen application
84%

 

 

Pal et al. (2005)

Plants grown for 90 days in pots within open-top-chambers at low (75 kg/ha) soil nitrogen application
29%

 

 

Pal et al. (2005)

Plants grown for 90 days in pots within open-top-chambers at normal (150 kg/ha) soil nitrogen application
47%

 

 

Pandurangam et al. (2006)

Plant cultivar HD 2329 grown from seed to maturity under normal field conditions within open-top chambers; measurements made at anthesis stage
25%

 

 

Pandurangam et al. (2006)

Plant cultivar DL 1266-5 grown from seed to maturity under normal field conditions within open-top chambers; measurements made at anthesis stage
29%

 

 

Perchorowicz and Jensen (1983)

pots (6-oz), moderate light
 

 

69%

Perchorowicz and Jensen (1983)

pots (6-oz), high light
 

 

185%

Santruckova et al. (1999)

Grown hydroponically in growth chambers for 34 days; pre-tillering; cv. Ritmo
99%

 

 

Santruckova et al. (1999)

Grown hydroponically in growth chambers for 34 days; tillering; cv. Ritmo
75%

 

 

Santruckova et al. (1999)

Grown hydroponically in growth chambers for 34 days; post-tillering; cv. Ritmo
143%

 

 

Sicher and Bunce (1997)

Plants grown from seed to maturity in field within open-top chambers (1995, day of year 109); cv. Coker
51%

 

 

Sicher and Bunce (1997)

Plants grown from seed to maturity in field within open-top chambers (1995, day of year 123); cv. Coker
14%

 

 

Sicher and Bunce (1997)

Plants grown from seed to maturity in field within open-top chambers (1996, day of year 113); cv. Coker
73%

 

 

Sicher and Bunce (1997)

Plants grown from seed to maturity in field within open-top chambers (1996, day of year 144); cv. Coker
11%

 

 

Srivastava et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, vegetative state,early morning
150%

 

 

Srivastava et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, vegetative state, afternoon
32%

 

 

Srivastava et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, vegetative state,late afternoon
40%

 

 

Srivastava et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, flowering state,early morning
130%

 

 

Srivastava et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, flowering state, afternoon
28%

 

 

Srivastava et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, flowering state,late afternoon
0%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar Yitpi grown under rain-fed (RF) conditions in cooler-wetter (CW) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
86%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar Yitpi grown under rain-fed (RF) conditions in warmer-drier (WD) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
111%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar H45 grown under rain-fed (RF) conditions in cooler-wetter (CW) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
146%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar H45 grown under rain-fed (RF) conditions in warmer-drier (WD) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
398%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar Yitpi grown under rain-fed plus irrigation (RI) conditions in cooler-wetter (CW) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
130%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar Yitpi grown under rain-fed plus irrigation (RI) conditions in warmer-drier (WD) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
181%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar H45 grown under rain-fed plus irrigation (RI) conditions in cooler-wetter (CW) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
104%

 

 

Tausz-Posch et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most recent fully-expanded sunlit flag leaves of cultivar H45 grown under rain-fed plus irrigation (RI) conditions in warmer-drier (WD) times of the year measured at time of anthesis
124%

 

 

Thilakarathne et al. (2015)

Mean results of diurnal gas-exchange measurements made on source leaf blades of rain-fed plants growing at the Australian Grain Free Air CO2 Enrichment (AGFACE) facility located 7 km west of Horsham, Victoria, Australia, which were conducted at two-hour intervals throughout the entire growing season, cv H45
74%

 

 

Thilakarathne et al. (2015)

Mean results of diurnal gas-exchange measurements made on source leaf blades of rain-fed plants growing at the Australian Grain Free Air CO2 Enrichment (AGFACE) facility located 7 km west of Horsham, Victoria, Australia, which were conducted at two-hour intervals throughout the entire growing season, cv Yitpi
181%

 

 

Thilakarathne et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the least responsive cultivar from seven cultivars of adequately watered and fertilized wheat grown from the seedling stage to maturity in 3.5-L pots within environmentally-controlled glasshouses at the Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria, Australia, where they were exposed to normal sunlight and maintained at day/night temperatures of 20/17C
29%

 

 

Thilakarathne et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of the most responsive cultivar from seven cultivars of adequately watered and fertilized wheat grown from the seedling stage to maturity in 3.5-L pots within environmentally-controlled glasshouses at the Department of Primary Industries, Horsham, Victoria, Australia, where they were exposed to normal sunlight and maintained at day/night temperatures of 20/17C
71%

 

 

Tiedemann and Firsching (2000)

controlled environment chambers,non-inocculated, ambient ozone
33%

 

 

Tiedemann and Firsching (2000)

controlled environment chambers,non-inocculated, high ozone
47%

 

 

Tiedemann and Firsching (2000)

controlled environment chambers, inocculated, ambient ozone
25%

 

 

Tiedemann and Firsching (2000)

controlled environment chambers, inocculated, high ozone
53%

 

 

Veisz et al. (2008)

Grain yield of Mv Lona variety plants grown in a phytotron under well-watered conditions, where water was withheld from the 10th day after heading, during which time soil volumetric water content dropped from approximately 25% to 6%
27%

 

 

Veisz et al. (2008)

Grain yield of Mv Lona variety plants grown in a phytotron under drought conditions, where water was withheld from the 10th day after heading, during which time soil volumetric water content dropped from approximately 25% to 6%
27%

 

 

Wang et al. (2008)

Photosynthesis of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed at their optimal daytime temperature for about six weeks in growth chambers within 5-L pots filled with a 1:1:1 mixture of top-soil, sand and perlite
8%

 

 

Wu et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, low soil water
41%

 

 

Wu et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, medium soil water
103%

 

 

Wu et al. (2002)

open-top chambers, high soil water
83%

 

 

Yu et al. (2004)

Plants growing in the field in the North China Plain
43%

 

 

Zhang et al. (2009)

Jointing photosynthesis of plants grown from seed in a FACE study conducted at Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, East China, measured at three different growth stages
16%

 

 

Zhang et al. (2009)

Heading photosynthesis of plants grown from seed in a FACE study conducted at Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, East China, measured at three different growth stages
23%

 

 

Zhang et al. (2009)

Filling photosynthesis of plants grown from seed in a FACE study conducted at Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, East China, measured at three different growth stages
21%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2008)

Flag leaf photosynthesis of plants in a FACE study during the grain-filling stage
34%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2008)

Ear photosynthesis of plants in a FACE study during the grain-filling stage
84%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2012)

Photosynthesis of newly-expanded flag leaves of well-watered and adequately-fertilized plants exposed to full sunlight growing out-of-doors in a FACE study conducted at Zhongcun village, Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province in China during 2007
49%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2012)

Photosynthesis of mid-anthesis flag leaves of well-watered and adequately-fertilized plants exposed to full sunlight growing out-of-doors in a FACE study conducted at Zhongcun village, Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province in China during 2007
21%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2012)

Photosynthesis of end of grain filling flag leaves of well-watered and adequately-fertilized plants exposed to full sunlight growing out-of-doors in a FACE study conducted at Zhongcun village, Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province in China during 2007
16%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2012)

Photosynthesis of newly-expanded flag leaves of well-watered and adequately-fertilized plants exposed to full sunlight growing out-of-doors in a FACE study conducted at Zhongcun village, Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province in China during 2008
45%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2012)

Photosynthesis of mid-anthesis flag leaves of well-watered and adequately-fertilized plants exposed to full sunlight growing out-of-doors in a FACE study conducted at Zhongcun village, Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province in China during 2008
20%

 

 

Zhu et al. (2012)

Photosynthesis of end of grain filling flag leaves of well-watered and adequately-fertilized plants exposed to full sunlight growing out-of-doors in a FACE study conducted at Zhongcun village, Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province in China during 2008
17%

 

 

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