Percent Photosynthesis (Net CO2 Exchange Rate) Increases for
300, 600 and 900 ppm Increases in the Air's CO2 Concentration:


For a more detailed description of this table, click here.

Betula papyrifera Marsh. [Paper Birch]


Statistics
 
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm
 Number of Results
57
 
 
 Arithmetic Mean
60.8%
 
 
 Standard Error
10.9%
 
 

Individual Experiment Results

Journal References

Experimental Conditions
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a low soil moisture regime (30-40% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 5 and 7C, for a mean of 6C
72%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a low soil moisture regime (30-40% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 15 and 17C, for a mean of 16C
85%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a low soil moisture regime (30-40% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 25 and 27C, for a mean of 26C
25%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a medium soil moisture regime (45-55% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 5 and 7C, for a mean of 6C
82%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a medium soil moisture regime (45-55% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 15 and 17C, for a mean of 16C
70%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a medium soil moisture regime (45-55% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 25 and 27C, for a mean of 26C
25%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a high soil moisture regime (60-70% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 5 and 7C, for a mean of 6C
61%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a high soil moisture regime (60-70% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 15 and 17C, for a mean of 16C
39%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well fertilized seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for two months at a high soil moisture regime (60-70% of field capacity) at first- and second-month soil temperatures of 25 and 27C, for a mean of 26C
3%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at a low substrate nutrient regime (4/1.8/3.3 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 5 and 7C, for a three-month temperature mean of 6.3C
35%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at a low substrate nutrient regime (4/1.8/3.3 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 15 and 17C, for a three-month temperature mean of 16.3C
29%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at a low substrate nutrient regime (4/1.8/3.3 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 25 and 27C, for a three-month temperature mean of 26.3C
32%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at an intermediate substrate nutrient regime (80/35/66 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 5 and 7C, for a three-month temperature mean of 6.3C
14%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at an intermediate substrate nutrient regime (80/35/66 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 15 and 17C, for a three-month temperature mean of 16.3C
27%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at an intermediate substrate nutrient regime (80/35/66 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 25 and 27C, for a three-month temperature mean of 26.3C
28%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at a high substrate nutrient regime (160/70/132 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 5 and 7C, for a three-month temperature mean of 6.3C
14%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at a high substrate nutrient regime (160/70/132 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 15 and 17C, for a three-month temperature mean of 16.3C
39%

 

 

Ambebe and Dang (2009)

Photosynthesis of well watered seedlings grown within environmentally-controlled greenhouses in pots filled with a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and vermiculate for three months at a high substrate nutrient regime (160/70/132 mg/liter N/P/K) at first- and second-through-third-month soil temperatures of 25 and 27C, for a three-month temperature mean of 26.3C
26%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 60 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 10 mg N per liter soil
43%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 60 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 80 mg N per liter soil
51%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 60 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 150 mg N per liter soil
28%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 60 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 220 mg N per liter soil
55%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 60 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 290 mg N per liter soil
58%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 80 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 10 mg N per liter soil
12%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 80 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 80 mg N per liter soil
35%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 80 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 150 mg N per liter soil
18%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 80 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 220 mg N per liter soil
42%

 

 

Cao et al. (2007)

Photosynthesis of initially-7-week-old well watered and fertilized seedlings grown within greenhouses for 80 more days in pots filled with a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite augmented with 290 mg N per liter soil
35%

 

 

Catovsky and Bazzaz (1999)

glasshouse, wet
21%

 

 

Catovsky and Bazzaz (1999)

glasshouse, intermediate
38%

 

 

Catovsky and Bazzaz (1999)

glasshouse, dry
41%

 

 

Darbah et al. (2010)

Photosynthesis of originally six-month-old saplings that had been grown for nine more years at the Aspen FACE site in Wisconsin (USA), measured during a period of unusual warmth within a temperature range of 32-35C
152%

 

 

Darbah et al. (2010)

Photosynthesis of originally six-month-old saplings that had been grown for nine more years at the Aspen FACE site in Wisconsin (USA), measured during a period of unusual warmth within a temperature range of 36-39C
474%

 

 

Darbah et al. (2010)

Photosynthesis of young trees in the ninth year of the Aspen FACE study near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (USA) during an unusually intense heat wave, measured within a temperature range of 32-35C
142%

 

 

Darbah et al. (2010)

Photosynthesis of young trees in the ninth year of the Aspen FACE study near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (USA) during an unusually intense heat wave, measured within a temperature range of 36-39C
446%

 

 

Ellsworth et al. (2004)

Plants grown under natural conditions for three years in a FACE study
26%

 

 

Karnosky et al. (2005)

Plants grown from the young seedling stage for three years under natural environmental conditions at the Aspen FACE site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA
76%

 

 

Karnosky et al. (2005)

Plants grown from the young seedling stage for four years under natural environmental conditions at the Aspen FACE site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA
101%

 

 

Kubiske and Pregitzer (1996)

open-top chambers, sun
57%

 

 

Kubiske and Pregitzer (1996)

open-top chambers, shade
7%

 

 

Kubiske and Pregitzer (1997)

open-top chambers, sun
87%

 

 

Kubiske and Pregitzer (1997)

open-top chambers, shade
71%

 

 

Riikonen et al. (2008)

Late-season photosynthesis (averaged over the growing season) of long-shoot leaves of trees in their 8th-9th years of CO2 enrichment at the Aspen FACE site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (USA)
91%

 

 

Riikonen et al. (2008)

Photosynthesis (averaged over the growing season) of short-shoot leaves of trees in their 8th-9th years of CO2 enrichment at the Aspen FACE site near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (USA)
106%

 

 

Sefcik et al. (2006)

Photosynthesis of light-saturated seedlings grown for two years in open-top chambers within a 90-year-old northern hardwood forest in Michigan (USA)
85%

 

 

Tjoelker et al. (1998)

Seedlings grown for three months in controlled environment chambers at day/night temperatures ranging from 18/12 to 30/24C (average results)
44%

 

 

Zhang et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of new fully-expanded 4th or 5th leaves from the top of 2-month old seedlings growing in pots containing a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite maintained at low (L) nutrient levels located within four identical greenhouses
9%

 

 

Zhang et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of new fully-expanded 4th or 5th leaves from the top of 2-month old seedlings growing in pots containing a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite maintained at high (H = 10 L) nutrient levels located within four identical greenhouses
22%

 

 

Zhang et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of new fully-expanded 4th or 5th leaves from the top of 3-month old seedlings growing in pots containing a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite maintained at low (L) nutrient levels located within four identical greenhouses
10%

 

 

Zhang et al. (2013)

Photosynthesis of new fully-expanded 4th or 5th leaves from the top of 3-month old seedlings growing in pots containing a 1:1 mix of peat moss and vermiculite maintained at high (H = 10 L) nutrient levels located within four identical greenhouses
25%

 

 

Zhang and Dang (2005)

Well-watered and fertilized saplings grown from seed in containers (13.5 cm tall, 11 cm top diameter) in greenhouses for 2 months at a low soil temperatures of 7C, followed by 2 more two months at a higher soil temperature of 10C
35%

 

 

Zhang and Dang (2005)

Well-watered and fertilized saplings grown from seed in containers (13.5 cm tall, 11 cm top diameter) in greenhouses for 2 months at a medium soil temperatures of 17C, followed by 2 more two months at a higher soil temperature of 20C
42%

 

 

Zhang and Dang (2005)

Well-watered and fertilized saplings grown from seed in containers (13.5 cm tall, 11 cm top diameter) in greenhouses for 2 months at a high soil temperatures of 27C, followed by 2 more two months at a higher soil temperature of 30C
30%

 

 

Zhang and Dang (2006)

Photosynthesis of well watered plants grown from seed for 2.5 months at low fertility in large containers within environment-controlled greenhouses
38%

 

 

Zhang and Dang (2006)

Photosynthesis of well watered plants grown from seed for 2.5 months at high fertility in large containers within environment-controlled greenhouses
32%

 

 

Zhang and Dang (2006)

Photosynthesis of well watered plants grown from seed for 3.5 months at low fertility in large containers within environment-controlled greenhouses
33%

 

 

Zhang and Dang (2006)

Photosynthesis of well watered plants grown from seed for 3.5 months at high fertility in large containers within environment-controlled greenhouses
39%

 

 

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