Percent Dry Weight (Biomass) Increases for
300, 600 and 900 ppm Increases in the Air's CO2 Concentration:


For a more detailed description of this table, click here.

Triticum aestivum L. [Common Wheat]


Statistics
 
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm
 Number of Results
300
17
12
 Arithmetic Mean
35.9%
63.3%
33.8%
 Standard Error
1.9%
12.8
7.2%

Individual Experiment Results

Journal References

Experimental Conditions
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm

Akin et al. (1995)

FACE, wet treatment
13%

 

 

Akin et al. (1995)

FACE, dry treatment
35%

 

 

Andre and Du Cloux (1993)

growth chambers, no water stress, day 23
23%

 

 

Andre and Du Cloux (1993)

growth chambers, no water stress, day 30
14%

 

 

Andre and Du Cloux (1993)

growth chambers, no water stress, day 38
30%

 

 

Andre and Du Cloux (1993)

growth chambers, water stress, day 12
45%

 

 

Andre and Du Cloux (1993)

growth chambers, water stress, day 36
23%

 

 

Andre and Du Cloux (1993)

growth chambers, water stress, day 50,14 days after recovery of normal watering
37%

 

 

Balaguer et al. (1995)

controlled environment chambers, leaves
52%

 

 

Balaguer et al. (1995)

controlled environment chambers, roots
38%

 

 

Balagueret al. (1995)

controlled environment chambers, stems
56%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled glasshouse, aseptically grown in agar, 0.25 mM Na2HPO4
37%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled glasshouse, aseptically grown in agar, 1.0 inositol hexaphosphate
17%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled glasshouse, aseptically grown in agar, 0.25 mM inositol hexaphosphate
-4%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled glasshouse, aseptically grown in agar, 1.0 mM glucose-1-phosphate
45%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled glasshouse, aseptically grown in agar, 0.25 mM glucose-1-phosphate
7%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled glasshouse, aseptically grown in agar, 0 mM P
30%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled-environment cabinets, solution culture, transient P deficiency,1.0 mM KH2PO4
61%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled-environment cabinets, solution culture, transient P deficiency,0.01 mM KH2PO4
64%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled-environment cabinets, solution culture, transient P deficiency,1.0 mM inositol hexaphosphate
39%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled-environment cabinets, solution culture, continuous P deficiency,1.0 mM KH2PO4
19%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled-environment cabinets, solution culture, continuous P deficiency,0.01 mM KH2PO4
20%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled-environment cabinets, solution culture, continuous P deficiency,1.0 mM inositol hexaphosphate
20%

 

 

Barrett et al. (1998)

controlled glasshouse, aseptically grown in agar, 1.0 mM Na2HPO4
63%

 

 

Batts et al. (1997)

Grain biomass of plants grown in the field for four consecutive seasons within polyethylene-covered tunnels along which a temperature gradient was imposed
80%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2004a)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots in growth chambers under normal temperature
30%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2004a)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots in growth chambers; aboveground biomass at normal temperature; cv Emma
29%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2004a)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots in growth chambers; aboveground biomass under heat stress; cv Emma
35%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2004a)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots in growth chambers; aboveground biomass under normal temperature; cv Mezofold
19%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2004a)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots in growth chambers; aboveground biomass under heat stress; cv Mezofold
11%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2004b)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed in pots in growth chambers for a total of 128 days after planting; cultivar Mv Martina
11%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2004b)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed in pots in growth chambers for a total of 128 days after planting; cultivar Mv Emma
9%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2005)

Aboveground biomass of plants grown in controlled environment chambers at ambient temperature; cv. Mezofold
6%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2005)

Aboveground biomass of plants grown in controlled environment chambers subjected to 15 days of +11°C elevated daytime temperature; cv. Martina
20%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2005)

Aboveground biomass of plants grown in controlled environment chambers at ambient temperature; cv. Emma
18%

 

 

Bencze et al. (2005)

Aboveground biomass of plants grown in controlled environment chambers subjected to 15 days of +11°C elevated daytime temperature; cv. Emma
13%

 

 

Benczeet al. (2004a)

Well-watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots in growth chambers under heat-stressed temperature
30%

 

 

Benczeet al. (2005)

Aboveground biomass of plants grown in controlled environment chambers subjected to 15 days of +11°C elevated daytime temperature; cv. Mezofold
18%

 

 

Benczeet al. (2005)

Aboveground biomass of plants grown in controlled environment chambers at ambient temperature; cv. Martina
24%

 

 

Benlloch-Gonzalez et al. (2014)

Above-ground biomass (cultivar Janz) of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed for 48 days at Shenton Park, Western Australia, in glass-walled rhizo-boxes filled to a depth of one meter with a dark brown loam soil consisting of 40% brown sand, 40% silt and 20% clay in four tunnel houses in the field
101%

 

 

Benlloch-Gonzalez et al. (2014)

Above-ground biomass (cultivar Vigor 18) of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed for 48 days at Shenton Park, Western Australia, in glass-walled rhizo-boxes filled to a depth of one meter with a dark brown loam soil consisting of 40% brown sand, 40% silt and 20% clay in four tunnel houses in the field
38%

 

 

Bunce (2016)

Grain yield at maturity of well-fertilized plants grown in open top chambers and harvested in 2013; cv Pioneer 25 R40
23%

 

 

Bunce (2016)

Grain yield at maturity of well-fertilized plants grown in open top chambers and harvested in 2014; cv Pioneer 25 R40
24%

 

 

Bunce (2016)

Grain yield at maturity of well-fertilized plants grown in open top chambers and harvested in 2014; cv Choptank
41%

 

 

Bunce (2016)

Grain yield at maturity of well-fertilized plants grown in a FACE system and harvested in 2013; cv Pioneer 25 R40
-2%

 

 

Bunce (2016)

Grain yield at maturity of well-fertilized plants grown in a FACE system and harvested in 2014; cv Pioneer 25 R40
-42%

 

 

Bunce (2016)

Grain yield at maturity of well-fertilized plants grown in a FACE system and harvested in 2014; cv Choptank
-27%

 

 

Butterly et al. (2015)

Above-ground biomass of plants grown from seed to maturity in well-watered and fertilized virgin soil contained within PVC columns located inside of outdoor SoilFACE bunkers at Horsham, Victoria, Australia
117%

 

 

Cardoso-Vilhena et al. (2004)

Plants grown individually in 3-dm3 pots in controlled environment chambers for 77 days; cv. Hanno; less than 5 nl l-1 ozone
56%

 

 

Cardoso-Vilhena et al. (2004)

Plants grown individually in 3-dm3 pots in controlled environment chambers for 77 days; cv. Hanno; 75 nl l-1 ozone
162%

 

 

Cardoso-Vilhena and Barnes (2001)

controlled environment chamber,1.5 mM NO
10%

 

 

Cardoso-Vilhena and Barnes (2001)

controlled environment chamber,4 mM NO
24%

 

 

Cardoso-Vilhena and Barnes (2001)

controlled environment chamber,14 mM NO
37%

 

 

Chen et al. (2004)

Aboveground biomass of well-watered plants infested with aphids grown from seed to maturity in high-fertility pots placed in open-top chambers; cv. Kehan 50
48%

 

 

Chen et al. (2004)

Aboveground biomass of well-watered plants not infested with aphids grown from seed to maturity in high-fertility pots placed in open-top chambers; cv. Kehan 50
52%

 

 

Cheng and Johnson (1998)

growth chamber, nitrogen fertilizer added
43%

 

 

Cheng and Johnson (1998)

growth chamber, no nitrogen fertilizer added
19%

 

 

Christ and Korner (1995)

hydroponics, shoots
40%

 

 

Christ and Korner (1995)

hydroponics, roots
73%

 

 

Dahal et al. (2014)

Grain yields of well watered and fertilized spring (cv Katepwa) plants grown from seed to maturity in controlled-environment growth chambers under continuous non-acclimated conditions (NA, 20/16C, day/night air temperatures)
39%

 

 

Dahal et al. (2014)

Grain yields of well watered and fertilized winter (cv Norstar) plants grown from seed to maturity in controlled-environment growth chambers for 75 days under cold-acclimated conditions (CA, 5/5C, day/night air temperatures), and thereafter under non-acclimated conditions (NA, 20/16C, day/night air temperatures)
57%

 

 

Deepak and Agrawal (1999)

Well watered and fertilized plants of the cultivar Malviya 234 grown for 45 days under field conditions in open-top chambers at Varanasi, India, without an extra 60 ppb of SO
28%

 

 

Deepak and Agrawal (1999)

Well watered and fertilized plants of the cultivar Malviya 234 grown for 45 days under field conditions in open-top chambers at Varanasi, India, with an extra 60 ppb of SO
26%

 

 

Deepak and Agrawal (1999)

Well watered and fertilized plants of the cultivar Malviya 234 grown for 60 days under field conditions in open-top chambers at Varanasi, India, without an extra 60 ppb of SO
36%

 

 

Deepak and Agrawal (1999)

Well watered and fertilized plants of the cultivar Malviya 234 grown for 60 days under field conditions in open-top chambers at Varanasi, India, with an extra 60 ppb of SO
75%

 

 

Derner et al. (2004)

Plants grown in pots in glasshouse bays from the seed of prior generations of plants raised under the same CO
0%

 

 

Derner et al. (2004)

Plants grown in pots in glasshouse bays from the seed of prior generations of plants raised under the same CO
18%

 

 

Derner et al. (2004)

Plants grown in pots in glasshouse bays from the seed of prior generations of plants raised under the same CO
54%

 

 

Derner et al. (2004)

Plants grown in pots in glasshouse bays from the seed of prior generations of plants raised under the same CO
46%

 

 

Derner et al. (2004)

Plants grown in pots in glasshouse bays from the seed of prior generations of plants raised under the same CO
37%

 

 

Derneret al. (2004)

Plants grown in pots in glasshouse bays from the seed of prior generations of plants raised under the same CO
33%

 

 

Derneret al. (2004)

Plants grown in pots in glasshouse bays from the seed of prior generations of plants raised under the same CO
92%

 

 

Dijkstra et al. (1999)

open-top chambers and field-tracking sun-lit climatized enclosures, total biomass
15%

 

 

Dijkstra et al. (1999)

open-top chambers and field-tracking sun-lit climatized enclosures, grain yield
17%

 

 

Dong-Xiu et al. (2002)

Season-long open-top chambers; soil moisture at 40% field capacity
41%

 

 

Dong-Xiu et al. (2002)

Season-long open-top chambers; soil moisture at 60% field capacity
103%

 

 

Dong-Xiu et al. (2002)

Season-long open-top chambers; soil moisture at 80% field capacity
83%

 

 

Donnelly et al. (1999)

open-top chambers, 1995
69%

 

 

Donnelly et al. (1999)

open-top chambers, 1996
54%

 

 

Donnelly et al. (2005)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots recessed into the ground out-of-doors in open-top chambers in air to which 90 ppb ozone was added (elevated ozone)
84%

 

 

Donnellyet al. (2005)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in pots recessed into the ground out-of-doors in open-top chambers in ambient air (normal ozone)
25%

 

 

Du Cloux et al. (1987)

pots (1.45 liters)
43%

 

 

Fangmeier et al. (1996)

open top chamber, 150kg Nitrogen per hectare added, ambient ozone
30%

 

 

Fangmeier et al. (1996)

open top chamber, 270kg Nitrogen per hectare added, ambient ozone
30%

 

 

Fangmeier et al. (1996)

open top chamber, 150kg Nitrogen per hectare added, ozone stressed
34%

 

 

Fangmeier et al. (1996)

open top chamber, 270kg Nitrogen per hectare added, ozone stressed
35%

 

 

Frank and Bauer (1996)

growth chambers, 14/18°C, 0 kg N ha-1
20%

-10%

 

Frank and Bauer (1996)

growth chambers, 14/18°C, 100 kg N ha-1
11%

0%

 

Frank and Bauer (1996)

growth chambers, 14/18°C, 300 kg N ha-1
14%

43%

 

Frank and Bauer (1996)

growth chambers, 22/26°C, 0 kg N ha-1
-78%

0%

 

Frank and Bauer (1996)

growth chambers, 22/26°C, 100 kg N ha-1
8%

-3%

 

Frank and Bauer (1996)

growth chambers, 22/26°C, 300 kg N ha-1
70%

28%

 

Gifford et al. (1985)

pots
97%

 

 

Gordon et al. (1995)

chambers inside a glasshouse
33%

 

 

Gorissen (1996)

phytotrons, 35 days
44%

 

 

Gorissen (1996)

phytotrons, 49 days
36%

 

 

Goudriaan and de Ruiter (1983)

pots, greenhouse
24%

 

 

Grant et al. (1999)

FACE, low irrigation
28%

 

 

Grant et al. (1999)

FACE, high irrigation
15%

 

 

Gregory et al. (1997)

polyethylene-covered tunnels, roots
66%

 

 

Grotenhuis et al. (1997)

greenhouses, Veery-10 cultivar, seed yield
 

 

15%

Grotenhuis et al. (1997)

greenhouses, Veery-10 cultivar, biomass
 

 

26%

Grotenhuis et al. (1997)

greenhouses, USU-Apogee cultivar,seed yield
 

 

17%

Grotenhuis et al. (1997)

greenhouses, USU-Apogee cultivar, biomass
 

 

27%

Gutierrez et al. (2009)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity out-of-doors in Salamanca, Spain, in 2004 within chambers made of transparent polycarbonate walls and polyethylene sheet roofing
11%

 

 

Gutierrez et al. (2009)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity out-of-doors in Salamanca, Spain, in 2005 within chambers made of transparent polycarbonate walls and polyethylene sheet roofing
16%

 

 

Hakala (1998)

open-top chambers, ambient temperature, grain yield
11%

 

 

Hakala (1998)

open-top chambers, ambient temperature, above ground biomass
15%

 

 

Hakala (1998)

greenhouse, ambient + 3C temperature, grain yield
18%

 

 

Hakala (1998)

greenhouse, ambient + 3C temperature, above ground biomass
21%

 

 

Han et al. (2015)

Plants grown from seed to maturity in a mini-FACE system in a wheat-soybean rotation in Changping, Beijing, China, on a clay loam soil under low N (100 kg N/ha) conditions
24%

 

 

Han et al. (2015)

Plants grown from seed to maturity in a mini-FACE system in a wheat-soybean rotation in Changping, Beijing, China, on a clay loam soil under high N (170 kg N/ha) conditions
26%

 

 

Havelka et al. (1984)

field, open-top chambers
 

 

12%

Hogy et al. (2009)

Total biomass of well watered plants grown together with typical weeds out-of-doors south of Stuttgart, Germany, in a FACE study
37%

 

 

Hogy et al. (2009)

Grain biomass of well watered plants grown together with typical weeds out-of-doors south of Stuttgart, Germany, in a FACE study
27%

 

 

Hogy et al. (2009)

Total aboveground biomass of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in three different years under field conditions in a FACE study conducted at Heidfeldhof, south of Stuttgart in Germany
21%

 

 

Hogy et al. (2009)

Grain yield biomass of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity in three different years under field conditions in a FACE study conducted at Heidfeldhof, south of Stuttgart in Germany
18%

 

 

Hogy et al. (2010)

Above ground tissues biomass of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity out-of-doors in the field in a FACE study conducted south of Stuttgart (Germany)
24%

 

 

Hogy et al. (2010)

Grain yield biomass of well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed to maturity out-of-doors in the field in a FACE study conducted south of Stuttgart (Germany)
25%

 

 

Kant et al. (2007)

Whole plant biomass of well watered and fertilized plants grown (from seed) three to each 4-kg-capacity pot of Typic Haplustept soil in open-top chambers to the time of crown root initiation
32%

 

 

Kant et al. (2007)

Whole plant biomass of well watered and fertilized plants grown (from seed) three to each 4-kg-capacity pot of Typic Haplustept soil in open-top chambers to the time of anthesis
74%

 

 

Kant et al. (2007)

Whole plant biomass of well watered and fertilized plants grown (from seed) three to each 4-kg-capacity pot of Typic Haplustept soil in open-top chambers to the time of maturity
65%

 

 

Kartschall et al. (1995)

FACE, dry plot, biomass
35%

 

 

Kartschall et al. (1995)

FACE, wet plot, biomass
13%

 

 

Kartschall et al. (1995)

FACE, dry plot, grain yield
47%

 

 

Kartschall et al. (1995)

FACE, wet plot, grain yield
4%

 

 

Kendall et al. (1985)

pots, post-anthesis CO2, low light
 

 

41%

Kendall et al. (1985)

pots, post-anthesis CO2,moderate light
 

 

24%

Kimball et al. (2001)

FACE
27%

 

 

Kimball et al. (2001)

FACE, dry treatment
38%

 

 

Kimball et al. (2001)

FACE, low nitrogen
14%

 

 

Kou et al. (2007)

FACE study of plants grown for a full season at low soil N concentration (88.9 mg N kg