Dry Weight (Biomass) References
Triticum aestivum L. [Common Wheat]


Akin, D.E., Kimball, B.A., Windham, W.R., Pinter Jr., P.J., Wall, G.W., Garcia, R.L., LaMorte, W.H. and Morrison III, W.H. 1995. Effect of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on forage quality of wheat. Animal Feed Science and Technology 53: 29-43.

Andre, M. and Du Cloux, H. 1993. Interaction of CO2 enrichment and water limitations on photosynthesis and water efficiency in wheat. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 31: 103-112.

Asif, M., Yilmaz, O. and Ozturk, L. 2017. Elevated carbon dioxide ameliorates the effect of Zn deficiency and terminal drought on wheat grain yield but compromises nutritional quality. Plant and Soil 411: 57-67.

Balaguer, L., Barnes, J.D., Panicucci, A. and Borland, A.M. 1995. Production and utilization of assimilates in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves exposed to elevated O3 and/or CO2. New Phytologist 129: 557-568.

Barrett, D.J., Richardson, A.E. and Gifford, R.M. 1998. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase wheat root phosphate activity when growth is limited by phosphorus. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 25: 87-93.

Batts, G.R., Morison, J.I.L., Ellis, R.H., Hadley, P. and Wheeler, T.R. 1997. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and yield of crops of winter wheat over four seasons. European Journal of Agronomy 7: 43-52.

Bencze, S., Veisz, O. and Bedo, Z. 2005. Effect of elevated CO2 and high temperature on the photosynthesis and yield of wheat. Cereal Research Communications 33: 385-388.

Bencze, S., Veisz, O. and Bedo, Z. 2004a. Effects of high atmospheric CO2 and heat stress on phytomass, yield and grain quality of winter wheat. Cereal Research Communications 32: 75-82.

Bencze, S., Veisz, O. and Bedo, Z. 2004b. Effects of high atmospheric CO2 on the morphological and heading characteristics of winter wheat. Cereal Research Communications 32: 233-240.

Benlloch-Gonzalez, M., Bochicchio, R., Berger, J., Bramley, H. and Palta, J.A. 2014. High temperature reduces the positive effect of elevated CO2 on wheat root system growth. Field Crops Research 165: 71-78.

Bourgault, M., James, A.T. and Dreccer, M.F. 2017. Pot size matters revisited: does container size affect the response to elevated CO2 and our ability to detect genotypic variability in this response in wheat? Functional Plant Biology 44: 52-61.

Bunce, J.A. 2016. Responses of soybeans and wheat to elevated CO2 in free-air and open top chamber systems. Field Crops Research 186: 78-85.

Butterly, C.R., Armstrong, R., Chen, D. and Tang, C. 2015. Carbon and nitrogen partitioning of wheat and field pea grown with two nitrogen levels under elevated CO2. Plant and Soil 391: 367-382.

Cardoso-Vilhena, J., Balaguer, L., Eamus, D., Ollerenshaw, J. and Barnes, J. 2004. Mechanisms underlying the amelioration of O3-induced damage by elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Journal of Experimental Botany 55: 771-781.

Cardoso-Vilhena, J. and Barnes, J. 2001. Does nitrogen supply affect the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Hanno) to the combination of elevated CO2 and O3? Journal of Experimental Botany 52: 1901-1911.

Chen, F.J., Wu, G. and Ge, F. 2004. Impacts of elevated CO2 on the population abundance and reproductive activity of aphid Sitobion avenae Fabricius feeding on spring wheat. JEN 128: 723-730.

Cheng, W. and Johnson, D. 1998. Elevated CO2, rhizosphere processes, and soil organic matter composition. Plant and Soil 202: 167-174.

Christ, R.A. and Korner, C. 1995. Responses of shoot and root gas exchange, leaf blade expansion and biomass production to pulses of elevated CO2 in hydroponic wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 46: 1661-1667.

Dahal, K., Knowles, V.L., Plaxton, W.C. and Huner, N.P.A. 2014. Enhancement of photosynthetic performance, water use efficiency and grain yield during long-term growth under elevated CO2 in wheat and rye is growth temperature and cultivar dependent. Environmental and Experimental Botany 106: 207-220.

Deepak, S.S. and Agrawal, M. 1999. Growth and yield responses of wheat plants to elevated levels of CO2 and SO2, singly and in combination. Environmental Pollution 104: 411-419.

Derner, J.D., Tischler, C.R., Polley, H.W. and Johnson, H.B. 2004. Intergenerational above- and belowground responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to elevated CO2. Basic and Applied Ecology 5: 145-152.

Dijkstra, P., Schapendonk, A.H.M.C., Groenwold, K., Jansen, M. and Van de Geijn, S.C. 1999. Seasonal changes in the response of winter wheat to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration grown in open-top chambers and field tracking enclosures. Global Change Biology 5: 563-576.

Dong-Xiu, W., Gen-Xuan, W., Yong-Fei, B., Jian-Xiong, L. and Hong-Xu, R. 2002. Response of growth and water use efficiency of spring wheat to whole season CO2 enrichment and drought. Acta Botanica Sinica 44: 1477-1483.

Donnelly, A., Finnan, J., Jones, M.B. and Burke, J.I. 2005. A note on the effect of elevated concentrations of greenhouse gases on spring wheat yield in Ireland. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 44: 141-145.

Donnelly, A., Jones, M.B., Burke, J.I. and Schnieders, B. 1999. Does elevated CO2 protect grain yield of wheat from the effects of ozone stress? Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 54: 802-811.

Du Cloux, H.C., Andre, M., Daguenet, A. and Massimino, J. 1987. Wheat response to CO2 enrichment: Growth and CO2 exchanges at two plant densities. Journal of Experimental Botany 38: 1421-1431.

Fangmeier, A., Gruters, U., Hertstein, U., Sandhage-Hofmann, A., Vermehren, B. and Jager, H.J. 1996. Effcts of elevated CO2, nitrogen supply and tropospheric ozone on spring wheat. I. Growth and yeild. Environmental Pollution 91: 381-390.

Fernando, N., Hirotsu, N., Panozzo, J., Tausz, M., Norton, R.M. and Seneweera, S. 2017. Lower grain nitrogen content of wheat at elevated CO2 can be improved through post-anthesis NH4+ supplement. Journal of Cereal Science 74: 79-85.

Frank, A.B. and Bauer, A. 1996. Temperature, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide effects on spring wheat development and spikelet numbers. Crop Science 36: 659-665.

Gifford, R.M., Lambers, H. and Morison, J.I.L. 1985. Respiration of crop species under CO2 enrichment. Physiologia Plantarum 63: 351-356.

Gordon, D.C., Van Vuuren, M.M.I., Marshall, B. and Robinson, D. 1995. Plant growth chambers for the simultaneous control of soil and air temperatures, and of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Global Change Biology 1: 455-464.

Gorissen, A. 1996. Elevated CO2 evokes quantitative and qualitative changes in carbon dynamics in a plant/soil system: mechanisms and implications. Plant and Soil 187: 289-298.

Goudriaan, J. and de Ruiter, H.E. 1983. Plant growth in response to CO2 enrichment, at two levels of nitrogen and phosphorus supply: I. Dry matter, leaf area and development. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 31: 157-169.

Grant, R.F., Wall, G.W., Kimball, B.A., Frumau, K.F.A., Pinter Jr., P.J., Hunsaker, D.J. and Lamorte, R.L. 1999. Crop water relations under different CO2 and irrigation: testing of ecosys with the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 95: 27-51.

Gregory, P.J., Palta, J.A. and Batts, G.R. 1997. Root systems and root:mass ratio - carbon allocation under current and projected atmospheric conditions in arable crops. Plant and Soil 187: 221-228.

Grotenhuis, T., Reuveni, J. and Bugbee, B. 1997. Super-optimal CO2 reduces wheat yield in growth chamber and greenhouse environments. Advances in Space Research 20: 1901-1904.

Gutierrez, D., Gutierrez, E., Perez, P., Morcuende, R., Verdejo, A.L. and Martinez-Carrasco, R. 2009. Acclimation to future atmospheric CO2 levels increases photochemical efficiency and mitigates photochemistry inhibition by warm temperatures in wheat under field chambers. Physiologia Plantarum 137: 86-100.

Hakala, K. 1998. Growth and yield potential of spring wheat in a simulated changed climate with increased CO2 and higher temperature. European Journal of Agronomy 9: 41-52.

Han, X., Hao, X., Lam, S.K., Wang, H., Li, Y., Wheeler, T., Ju, H. and Lin, E. 2015. Yield and nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in winter wheat under elevated CO2: A 3-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 209: 132-137.

Havelka, U.D., Wittenbach, V.A. and Boyle, M.G. 1984. CO2-enrichment effects on wheat yield and physiology. Crop Science 24: 1163-1168.

Hogy, P., Keck, M., Niehaus, K., Franzaring, J. and Fangmeier, A. 2010. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on biomass, yield and low molecular weight metabolites in wheat grain. Journal of Cereal Science 52: 215-220.

Hogy, P., Wieser, H., Kohler, P., Schwadorf, K., Breuer, J., Franzaring, J., Muntifering, R. and Fangmeier, A. 2009. Effects of elevated CO2 on grain yield and quality of wheat: results from a 3-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. Plant Biology 11 (Suppl. 1): 60-69.

Hogy, P., Zorb, C., Langenkamper, G., Betsche, T. and Fangmeier, A. 2009. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment changes the wheat grain proteome. Journal of Cereal Science 50: 248-254.

Kant, P.C.B., Bhadraray, S., Purakayastha, T.J., Jain, V., Pal, M. and Datta, S.C. 2007. Active carbon-pools in rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in a Typic Haplustept in sub-tropical India. Environmental Pollution 147: 273-281.

Kartschall, Th., Grossman, S., Pinter Jr., P.J., Garcia, R.L., Kimball, B.A., Wall, G.W., Hunsaker, D.J. and LaMorte R.L. 1995. A simulation of phenology, growth, carbon dioxide exchange and yields under ambient atmosphere and free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) Maricopa, Arizona, for wheat. Journal of Biogeography 22: 611-622.

Kendall, A.C., Turner, J.C., Thomas, S.M. and Keys, A.J. 1985. Effects of CO2 enrichment at different irradiances on growth and yield of wheat. II. Effects on Kleiber spring wheat treated from anthesis in controlled environments in relation to effects on photosynthesis and photorespiration. Journal of Experimental Botany 36: 261-273.

Kimball, B.A., Morris, C.F., Pinter Jr., P.J., Wall, G.W., Hunsaker, D.J., Adamsen, F.J., LaMorte, R.L., Leavitt, S.W., Thompson, T.L., Matthias, A.D. and Brooks, T.J. 2001. Elevated CO2, drought and soil nitrogen effects on wheat grain quality. New Phytologist 150: 295-303.

Kou, T., Zhu, J., Xie, Z., Hasegawa, T. and Heiduk, K. 2007. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on soil and root respiration in winter wheat by using a respiration partitioning chamber. Plant and Soil 299: 237-249.

Lam, S.K., Chen, D., Norton, R. and Armstrong, R. 2012b. Nitrogen demand and the recovery of 15N-labelled fertilizer in wheat grown under elevated carbon dioxide in southern Australia. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 92: 133-144.

Lam, S.K., Chen, D., Norton, R. and Armstrong, R. 2013. The effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the contribution of residual legume and fertilizer nitrogen to a subsequent wheat crop. Plant and Soil 364: 81-91.

Lam, S.K., Han, X., Lin, E., Norton, R. and Chen, D. 2012a. Does elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration increase wheat nitrogen demand and recovery of nitrogen applied at stem elongation? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 155: 142-146.

Levine, L.H., Kasahara, H., Kopka, J., Erban, A., Fehrl, I., Kaplan, F., Zhao, W., Littell, R.C., Guy, C., Wheeler, R., Sager, J., Mills, A. and Levine, H.G. 2008. Physiologic and metabolic responses of wheat seedlings to elevated and super-elevated carbon dioxide. Advances in Space Research 42: 1917-1928.

Li, A.-G., Hou, Y.-S., Wall, G.W., Trent, A., Kimball, B.A. and Pinter Jr., P.J. 2000. Free-air CO2 enrichment and drought stress effects on grain filling rate and duration in spring wheat. Crop Science 40: 1263-1270.

Li, F.S. and Kang, S.Z. 2002. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment, applied N and soil moisture on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen uptake in spring wheat. Pedosphere 12: 207-218.

Li, W., Han, X., Zhang, Y. and Li, Z. 2007. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration, irrigation and nitrogenous fertilizer application on the growth and yield of spring wheat in semi-arid areas. Agricultural Water Management 87: 106-114.

Li, X., Jiang, D. and Liu, F. 2016. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat. Scientific Reports 6: 23313, DOI: 10.1038/srep23313.

Ma, H.-L., Zhu, J.-G., Liu, G., Xie, Z.-B., Wang, Y.-L., Yang, L.-X. and Zeng, Q. 2007b. Availability of soil nitrogen and phosphorus in a typical rice-wheat rotation system under elevated atmospheric [CO2]. Field Crops Research 100: 44-51.

Ma, H., Zhu, J., Xie, Z., Liu, G., Zeng, Q. and Han, Y. 2007a. Responses of rice and winter wheat to free-air CO2 enrichment (China FACE) at rice/wheat rotation system. Plant and Soil 294: 137-146.

Manderscheid, R., Burkart, S., Bramm, A. and Weigel, H.-J. 2003. Effect of CO2 enrichment on growth and daily radiation use efficiency of wheat in relation to temperature and growth stage. European Journal of Agronomy 19: 411-425.

Manderscheid, R. and Weigel, H.J. 1997. Photosynthetic and growth responses of old and modern spring wheat cultivars to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 64: 65-73.

Manderscheid, R. and Weigel, H.-J. 2007. Drought stress effects on wheat are mitigated by atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 27: 79-87.

Manoj-Kumar, Swarup, A., Patra, A.K., Chandrakala, J.U. and Manjaiah, K.M. 2012. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on phosphorus efficiency of wheat grown in an Inceptsiol of subtropical India. Plant, Soil and Environment 58: 230-235.

Marc, J. and Gifford, R.M. 1984. Floral initiation in wheat, sunflower, and sorghum under carbon dioxide enrichment. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 9-13.

Marhan, S., Demin, D., Erbs, M., Kuzyakov, Y., Fangmeier, A. and Kandeler, E. 2008. Soil organic matter mineralization and residue decomposition of spring wheat grown under elevated CO2 atmosphere. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 123: 63-68.

Masle, J. 2000. The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on cell division rates, growth patterns, and blade anatomy in young wheat plants are modulated by factors related to leaf position, vernalization, and genotype. Plant Physiology 122: 1399-1415.

McKee, I.F. and Woodward, F.I. 1994. CO2 enrichment responses of wheat: interactions with temperature, nitrate and phosphate. New Phytologist 127: 447-453.

McKee, I.F., Bullimore, J.F. and Long, S.P. 1997. Will elevated CO2 concentrations protect the yield of wheat from O3 damage? Plant, Cell and Environment 20: 77-84.

McMaster, G.S., LeCain, D.R., Morgan, J.A., Aiguo, L. and Hendrix, D.L. 1999. Elevated CO2 increases wheat CER, leaf and tiller development, and shoot and root growth. Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science 183: 119-128.

Mishra, A.K., Rai, R. and Agrawal, S.B. 2013. Individual and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with special emphasis on ROS generation and activation of antioxidant defense system. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics 50: 139-149.

Mitchell, R.A.C., Lawlor, D.W., Mitchell, V.J., Gibbard, C.L., White, E.M. and Porter, J.R. 1995. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and increased temperature on winter wheat: test of ARCWHEAT1 simulation model. Plant, Cell and Environment 18: 736-748.

Mitchell, R.A.C., Gibbard, C.L., Mitchell, V.J. and Lawlor, D.W. 1996. Effects of shading in different developmental phases on biomass and grain yield of winter wheat at ambient and elevated CO2. Plant, Cell and Environment 19: 616-621.

Monje, O. and Bugbee, B. 1998. Adaptation to high CO2 concentration in an optimal environment: radiation capture, canopy quantum yield and carbon use efficiency. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 315-324.

Morison, J.I.L. and Gifford, R.M. 1984. Plant growth and water use with limited water supply in high CO2 concentrations. II. Plant dry weight, partitioning and water use efficiency. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 11: 375-384.

Mulholland, B.J., Craigon, J., Black, C.R., Colls, J.J., Atherton, J. and Landon, G. 1997. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on the growth and yield of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 48: 113-122.

Musgrave, M.E. and Strain, B.R. 1988. Response of two wheat cultivars to CO2 enrichment under subambient oxygen conditions. Plant Physiology 87: 346-350.

Pal, M., Rao, L.S., Srivastava, A.C., Jain, V. and Sengupta, U.K. 2003/4. Impact of CO2 enrichment and variable nitrogen supplies on composition and partitioning of essential nutrients of wheat. Biologia Plantarum 47: 227-231.

Pal, M., Rao, L.S., Jain, V., Srivastava, A.C., Pandey, R., Raj, A. and Singh, K.P. 2005. Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen on wheat growth and photosynthesis. Biologia Plantarum 49: 467-470.

Pleijel, H., Sild, J., Danielsson, H. and Klemedtsson, L. 1998. Nitrous oxide emissions from a wheat field in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and open-top chamber enclosure. Environmental Pollution 102: 167-171.

Pleijel, H., Gelang, J., Sild, E., Danielsson, H., Younis, S., Karlsson, P.-E., Wallin, G., Skarby, L. and Sellden, G. 2000. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide, ozone and water availability on spring wheat growth and yield. Physiologia Plantarum 108: 61-70.

Prior, S.A., Runion, G.B., Rogers, H.H., Torbert, H.A. and Reeves, D.W. 2005. Elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on biomass production and soil carbon in conventional and conservation cropping systems. Global Change Biology 11: 657-665.

Qiao, Y., Zhang, H., Dong, B., Shi, C., Li, Y., Zhai, H. and Liu, M. 2010. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth and water use efficiency of winter wheat under two soil water regimes. Agricultural Water Management 97: 1742-1748.

Rakshit, R., Patra, A.K., Pal, D., Manoj-Kumar and Singh, R. 2012. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on nitrogen dynamics and microbial activity during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth on a subtropical inceptisol in India. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 198: 452-465.

Saebo, A. and Mortensen, L.M. 1996. Growth, morphology and yield of wheat, barley and oats grown at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in a cool, maritime climate. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 57: 9-15.

Schulze, J. and Merbach, W. 2008. Nitrogen rhizodeposition of young wheat plants under elevated CO2 and drought stress. Biology and Fertility of Soils 44: 417-423.

Schutz, M. and Fangmeier, A. 2001. Growth and yeild responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Minaret) to elevated CO2 and water limitation. Environmental Pollution 114: 187-194.

Seneweera, S.P. and Conroy, J.P. 2005. Enhanced leaf elongation rates of wheat at elevated CO2: Is it related to carbon and nitrogen dynamics within the growing leaf blade? Environmental and Experimental Botany 54: 174-181.

Sharma-Natu, P., Khan, F.A. and Ghildiyal, M.C. 1997. Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 in wheat cultivars. Photosynthetica 34: 537-543.

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Tausz-Posch, S., Seneweera, S., Norton, R.M., Fitzgerald, G.J. and Tausz, M. 2012. Can a wheat cultivar with high transpiration efficiency maintain its yield advantage over a near-isogenic cultivar under elevated CO2? Field Crops Research 133: 160-166.

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Tiedemann, A.V. and Firsching, K.H. 2000. Interactive effects of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide on growth and yield of leaf rust-infected versus non-infected wheat. Environmental Pollution 108: 357-363.

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Weigel, H.J., Pacholski, A., Burkart, S., Helal, M., Heinemeyer, O., Kleikamp, B., Mandershceid, R., Fruhauf, C., Hendrey, G.F., Lewin, K. and Nagy, J. 2005. Carbon turnover in a crop rotation under free air CO2 enrichment (FACE). Pedosphere 15: 728-738.

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