Percent Dry Weight (Biomass) Increases for
300, 600 and 900 ppm Increases in the Air's CO2 Concentration:


For a more detailed description of this table, click here.

Lolium perenne L. [Perennial Ryegrass]


Statistics
 
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm
 Number of Results
85
7
 
 Arithmetic Mean
35.2%
66.9%
 
 Standard Error
4.6%
4.8
 

Individual Experiment Results

Journal References

Experimental Conditions
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm

Allard et al. (2006)

Well-watered seedlings grown for three months within glasshouses in 9-cm-diameter and 25-cm-deep cylinders filled with pasture soil of low N concentration (5 kg N/ha)
4%

 

 

Allard et al. (2006)

Well-watered seedlings grown for three months within glasshouses in 9-cm-diameter and 25-cm-deep cylinders filled with pasture soil of high N concentration (100 kg N/ha)
52%

 

 

Bazot et al. (2006)

Plants grown from the seedling stage for 79 days (July 10 to September 27) in 8-cm-diameter 20-cm-deep PVC tubes pushed into the soil at the Swiss FACE facility in low soil N treatments (14 g N per m2)
55%

 

 

Bazot et al. (2006)

Plants grown from the seedling stage for 79 days (July 10 to September 27) in 8-cm-diameter 20-cm-deep PVC tubes pushed into the soil at the Swiss FACE facility in high soil N treatments (56 g N per m2)
74%

 

 

Casella et al. (1996)

plastic tunnels, summer water limited,160 kg N ha-1y-1, 1993
16%

 

 

Casella et al. (1996)

plastic tunnels, summer water limited,160 kg N ha-1y-1, 1994
15%

 

 

Casella et al. (1996)

plastic tunnels, summer water limited,530 kg N ha-1y-1, 1993
12%

 

 

Casella et al. (1996)

plastic tunnels, summer water limited,530 kg N ha-1y-1, 1994
12%

 

 

Casella et al. (1996)

plastic tunnels, fully irrigated,530 kg N ha-1y-1, 1993
23%

 

 

Casella et al. (1996)

plastic tunnels, fully irrigated,530 kg N ha-1y-1, 1994
9%

 

 

Cotrufo and Gorissen (1997)

growth chambers, first harvest,low nitrogen
-8%

 

 

Cotrufo and Gorissen (1997)

growth chambers, first harvest,high nitrogen
-3%

 

 

Cotrufo and Gorissen (1997)

growth chambers, second harvest,low nitrogen
24%

 

 

Cotrufo and Gorissen (1997)

growth chambers, second harvest,high nitrogen
27%

 

 

Daep et al. (2000)

FACE, high nitrogen
30%

 

 

Daepp et al. (2000)

FACE, low nitrogen
3%

 

 

Edwards et al. (2001)

Plants allowed to grow naturally for two years in a FACE study of a New Zealand dry sandy pasture; mean of peak summer growth 1998, 1999
132%

 

 

Farfan-Vignolo and Asard (2012)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown for four weeks in pots filled with a sandy soil within climate-controlled growth chambers
36%

 

 

Farfan-Vignolo and Asard (2012)

Well watered and fertilized 4-week-old plants grown in pots filled with sandy soil within climate-controlled growth chambers at 25C (ambient T, TA), after which they were grown for 4 additional weeks
32%

 

 

Farfan-Vignolo and Asard (2012)

Well watered and fertilized 4-week-old plants grown in pots filled with sandy soil within climate-controlled growth chambers at 25C (ambient T, TA), after which they were grown for 4 additional weeks, during which latter time period a drought treatment (D) was applied by withholding water for a period of 14 days
56%

 

 

Farfan-Vignolo and Asard (2012)

Well watered and fertilized 4-week-old plants grown in pots filled with sandy soil within climate-controlled growth chambers at 28C (elevated T, TE), after which they were grown for 4 additional weeks
39%

 

 

Farfan-Vignolo and Asard (2012)

Well watered and fertilized 4-week-old plants grown in pots filled with sandy soil within climate-controlled growth chambers at 28°C (elevated T, TE), after which they were grown for 4 additional weeks, during which latter time period a drought treatment (D) was applied by withholding water for a period of 14 days
65%

 

 

Gloser et al. (2000)

FACE, first cut, low nitrogen
-29%

 

 

Gloser et al. (2000)

FACE, first cut, high nitrogen
14%

 

 

Gloser et al. (2000)

FACE, second cut, low nitrogen
20%

 

 

Gloser et al. (2000)

FACE, second cut, high nitrogen
28%

 

 

Gorissen (1996)

phytotrons, experiment 2, no nitrogen limitation
11%

 

 

Gorissen (1996)

phytotrons, experiment 3, no nitrogen limitation
53%

 

 

Gorissen (1996)

phytotrons, experiment 3, low nitrogen
2%

 

 

Goudriaan and de Ruiter (1983)

pots, greenhouse
19%

 

 

Greer et al. (2000)

controlled environment system, 18C
7%

 

 

Greer et al. (2000)

controlled environment system, 28C
70%

 

 

Hartwig et al. (2002)

Boxes placed in FACE plots for 4 yrs.
113%

 

 

Hill et al. (2006)

Well-watered swards of plants grown from seed for three months in 10-cm-diameter 50-cm-long UPVC tubes in climate-controlled cabinets under low inorganic N (no added N) treatment
-10%

 

 

Hill et al. (2006)

Well-watered swards of plants grown from seed for three months in 10-cm-diameter 50-cm-long UPVC tubes in climate-controlled cabinets under high inorganic N (70 kg N/ha/month) treatment
15%

 

 

Hodge et al. (1998)

controlled environment chambers,sand microcosms, root
165%

 

 

Hodge et al. (1998)

controlled environment chambers,sand microcosms, shoot
209%

 

 

Hodge et al. (1998)

controlled environment chambers,sand microcosms, total
195%

 

 

Hodge et al. (1998)

controlled environment chambers,soil microcosms, root
116%

 

 

Hodge et al. (1998)

controlled environment chambers,soil microcosms, soot
99%

 

 

Hodge et al. (1998)

controlled environment chambers,soil microcosms, total
105%

 

 

Jia et al. (2010)

Shoot biomass of adequately fertilized plants grown from seed for 58 days out-of-doors within open-top chambers in pots filled with rice-field soil artificially contaminated with 0.03 mg Cd/kg soil
20%

 

 

Jia et al. (2010)

Shoot biomass of adequately fertilized plants grown from seed for 58 days out-of-doors within open-top chambers in pots filled with rice-field soil artificially contaminated with 24.7 mg Cd/kg soi
31%

 

 

Jia et al. (2010)

Shoot biomass of adequately fertilized plants grown from seed for 58 days out-of-doors within open-top chambers in pots filled with rice-field soil artificially contaminated with 99.5 mg Cd/kg soil
37%

 

 

Jia et al. (2010)

Adequately fertilized plants grown from seed for 58 days out-of-doors within open-top chambers in pots filled with rice-field soil artificially contaminated with 0.03 mg Cd/kg soil
24%

 

 

Jia et al. (2010)

Adequately fertilized plants grown from seed for 58 days out-of-doors within open-top chambers in pots filled with rice-field soil artificially contaminated with 24.7 mg Cd/kg soil
25%

 

 

Jia et al. (2010)

Adequately fertilized plants grown from seed for 58 days out-of-doors within open-top chambers in pots filled with rice-field soil artificially contaminated with 99.5 mg Cd/kg soil
31%

 

 

Jia et al. (2011)

Shoot biomass of plants grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland solution for 3 days followed by full-strength Hoagland solution for 5 and 20 days and at a cadmium (Cd) concentration of 160 mol/liter
 

93%

 

Jia et al. (2011)

Shoot biomass of plants grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland solution for 3 days followed by full-strength Hoagland solution for 5 and 20 days and without added cadmium (Cd)
 

76%

 

Jia et al. (2011)

Root biomass of plants grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland solution for 3 days followed by full-strength Hoagland solution for 5 and 20 days and at a cadmium (Cd) concentration of 160 mol/liter
 

64%

 

Jia et al. (2011)

Root biomass of plants grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland solution for 3 days followed by full-strength Hoagland solution for 5 and 20 days and without added cadmium (Cd)
 

52%

 

Jia et al. (2011)

Seedlings grown hydroponically within controlled environment chambers for three weeks in individual pots filled with one liter of half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution containing a cadmium (Cd) concentration of 0 mg/L
 

58%

 

Jia et al. (2011)

Seedlings grown hydroponically within controlled environment chambers for three weeks in individual pots filled with one liter of half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution containing a cadmium (Cd) concentration of 4 mg/L
 

61%

 

Jia et al. (2011)

Seedlings grown hydroponically within controlled environment chambers for three weeks in individual pots filled with one liter of half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution containing a cadmium (Cd) concentration of 16 mg/L
 

64%

 

Jones et al. (1996)

open-top chambers, 1992
14%

 

 

Jones et al. (1996)

open-top chambers, 1993
22%

 

 

Jongen and Jones (1998)

The final of four cuttings of adequately fertilized and watered plants grown from seed in pots out-of-doors in open-top chambers for 8 months
39%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2004)

Mean biomass of plants grown together (in mixture) with white clover (Trifolium repens L.) for six years in the field at the Swiss FACE facility
5%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2004)

Plants grown in monoculture for several years in the field at the Swiss FACE facility; mean biomass
13%

 

 

Maestre and Reynolds (2007)

Well watered plants grown from seed in microcosms within growth chambers for 90 days with nitrogen homogeneously supplied
-5%

 

 

Maestre and Reynolds (2007)

Well watered plants grown from seed in microcosms within growth chambers for 90 days with nitrogen heterogeneously supplied
15%

 

 

Marks and Clay (1990)

pots (0.5 liters), low nutrient
45%

 

 

Marks and Clay (1990)

pots (0.5 liters), high nutrient
80%

 

 

Morison and Gifford (1984)

pots (3.2 kg soil)
99%

 

 

Nijs et al. (1988)

containers (13 cm deep)
51%

 

 

Nijs and Impens (1997)

glasshouse
33%

 

 

Overdieck (1986)

mini-glasshouse
-5%

 

 

Overdieck and Bossemeyer (1985)

glasshouse
43%

 

 

Overdieck and Reining (1986)

basins, greenhouse
53%

 

 

Saebo and Mortensen (1995)

Plants grown from seed in 20-cm-deep boxes in field within open-top chambers in cool climate; cv Tove
-20%

 

 

Saebo and Mortensen (1995)

Plants grown from seed in 20-cm-deep boxes in field within open-top chambers in cool climate; cv Meritra
-13%

 

 

Schadler et al. (2007)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed for five weeks in pots filled with standard potting soil that were enclosed within tents made from translucid plastic foil that were located in a walk-in growth chamber
21%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2004)

Swards established in monoculture in 1992 at the Swiss FACE facility and grown for ten years at low soil nitrogen; data from year one; cv Bastion
6%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2004)

Swards established in monoculture in 1992 at the Swiss FACE facility and grown for ten years at high soil nitrogen; data from year one; cv Bastion
7%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2004)

Swards established in monoculture in 1992 at the Swiss FACE facility and grown for ten years at low soil nitrogen; data from year 10; cv Bastion
10%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2004)

Swards established in monoculture in 1992 at the Swiss FACE facility and grown for ten years at high soil nitrogen; data from year 10; cv Bastion
32%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2006)

Yield biomass means of five cuttings of swards growing in a field near Zurich, Switzerland, in a FACE study under low nitrogen (14 g m-2 year-1) addition to the soil
12%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2006)

Yield biomass means of five cuttings of swards growing in a field near Zurich, Switzerland, in a FACE study under high nitrogen (56 g m-2 year-1) addition to the soil
26%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2006)

Stubble biomass means of five cuttings of swards growing in a field near Zurich, Switzerland, in a FACE study under low nitrogen (14 g m-2 year-1) addition to the soil
34%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2006)

Stubble biomass means of five cuttings of swards growing in a field near Zurich, Switzerland, in a FACE study under high nitrogen (56 g m-2 year-1) addition to the soil
18%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2006)

Root biomass means of five cuttings of swards growing in a field near Zurich, Switzerland, in a FACE study under low nitrogen (14 g m-2 year-1) addition to the soil
21%

 

 

Schneider et al. (2006)

Root biomass means of five cuttings of swards growing in a field near Zurich, Switzerland, in a FACE study under high nitrogen (56 g m-2 year-1) addition to the soil
14%

 

 

Soussana et al. (2005)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed out-of-doors mixed with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in containers of sand in polyethylene-film tunnels and frequently cut
27%

 

 

Soussana et al. (2005)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed out-of-doors mixed with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in containers of sand in polyethylene-film tunnels and infrequently cut
11%

 

 

Soussana et al. (2005)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed out-of-doors mixed with common velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus L.) in containers of sand in polyethylene-film tunnels and frequently cut
30%

 

 

Soussana et al. (2005)

Well watered and fertilized plants grown from seed out-of-doors mixed with common velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus L.) in containers of sand in polyethylene-film tunnels and infrequently cut
53%

 

 

Tang et al. (2006)

Well-watered plants grown from seed in pots containing low-phosphorus-availability soil within controlled-environment chambers until their own seeds were physiologically mature
17%

 

 

Teyssonneyre et al. (2002)

plastic tunnels, three cuttings per year
6%

 

 

Teyssonneyre et al. (2002)

plastic tunnels, six cuttings per year
-1%

 

 

Van Ginkel et al. (1996)

Plants grown from seed in growth chambers for 71 days; shoot biomass
11%

 

 

Van Ginkel et al. (1996)

Plants grown from seed in growth chambers for 71 days; root biomass
79%

 

 

Weigel and Manderscheid (2005)

Mean results of a number of experiments conducted at the Institute of Agroecology of the Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig, Germany, over the period 1992-2000, in experimental settings ranging from controlled environment chambers to out-of-doors open-top chambers (OTCs) to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE)
15%

 

 

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