Dry Weight (Biomass) References
Lolium perenne L. [Perennial Ryegrass]

Allard, V., Robin, C., Newton, P.C.D., Lieffereing, M. and Soussana, J.F. 2006. Short and long-term effects of elevated CO2 on Lolium perenne rhizodeposition and its consequences on soil organic matter turnover and plant N yield. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38: 1178-1187.

Bazot, S., Ulff, L., Blum, H., Nguyen, C. and Robin, C. 2006. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on rhizodeposition from Lolium perenne grown on soil exposed to 9 years of CO2 enrichment. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38: 729-736.

Casella, E., Soussana, J.F. and Loiseau, P. 1996. Long-term effects of CO2 enrichment and temperature increase on a temperate grass sward. Plant and Soil 182: 83-99.

Cotrufo, M.F. and Gorissen, A. 1997. Elevated CO2 enhances below-ground C allocation in three perennial grass species at different levels of N availability. New Phytologist 137: 421-431.

Daepp, M., Suter, D., Almeida, J.P.F., Isopp, H., Hartwig, U.A., Frehner, M., Blum, H., Nosberger, J. and Luscher, A. 2000. Yield response of Lolium perenne swards to free air CO2 enrichment increased over six years in a high N input system on fertile soil. Global Change Biology 6: 805-816.

Edwards, G.R., Clark, H. and Newton, P.C.D. 2001. The effects of elevated CO2 on seed production and seedling recruitment in a sheep-grazed pasture. Oecologia 10.1007/s004420000602.

Farfan-Vignolo, E.R. and Asard, H. 2012. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on the oxidative stress response to drought in Lolium perenne L. and Medicago sativa L. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 59: 55-62.

Gloser, V., Jexikova, M., Luscher, A., Frehner, M., Blum, H., Nosberger, J. and Hartwig, U.A. 2000. Soil mineral nitrogen availability was unaffected by elevated atmospheric pCO2 in a four year old field experiment (Swiss FACE). Plant and Soil 227: 291-299.

Gorissen, A. 1996. Elevated CO2 evokes quantitative and qualitative changes in carbon dynamics in a plant/soil system: mechanisms and implications. Plant and Soil 187: 289-298.

Goudriaan, J. and de Ruiter, H.E. 1983. Plant growth in response to CO2 enrichment, at two levels of nitrogen and phosphorus supply: I. Dry matter, leaf area and development. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 31: 157-169.

Greer, D.H., Laing, W.A., Campbell, B.D. and Halligan, E.A. 2000. The effect of perturbations in temperature and photon flux density on the growth and photosynthetic responses of five pasture species. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27: 301-310.

Hartwig, U.A., Luscher, A., Nosberger, J. and van Kessel, C. 2002. Nitrogen-15 budget in model ecosystems of white clover and perennial ryegrass exposed for four years at elevated atmospheric pCO2. Global Change Biology 8: 194-202.

Hill, P.W., Marshall, C.M., Harmens, H., Jones, D.L. and Farrar, J.F. 2004. Carbon sequestration: do N inputs and elevated atmospheric CO2 alter soil solution chemistry and respiratory C losses? Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 4: 177-186..

Hodge, A., Paterson, E., Grayston, S.J., Campbell, C.D., Ord, B.G. and Killham, K. 1998. Characterisation and microbial utilisation of exudate material from the rhizosphere of Lolium perenne grown under CO2 enrichment. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 30: 1033-1043.

Jia, Y., Ju, X., Liao, S., Song, Z. and Li, Z. 2011. Phytochelatin synthesis in response to elevated CO2 under cadmium stress in Lolium perenne L. Journal of Plant Physiology 168: 1723-1728.

Jia, Y., Tang, S., Wang, R., Ju, X., Ding, Y., Tu, S. and Smith, D.L. 2010. Effects of elevated CO2 on growth, photosynthesis, elemental composition, antioxidant level, and phytochelatin concentration in Lolium mutiflorum and Lolium perenne under Cd stress. Journal of Hazardous Materials 180: 384-394.

Jia, Y., Tang, S.-r., Ju, X.-h., Shu, L.-n., Tu, S.-x., Feng, R.-w. and Giusti, L. 2011. Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress. Journal of Zhejiang University - SCIENCE B (Biomedicine & Beitechnology) 12: 313-325.

Jones, M.B., Jongen, M. and Doyle, T. 1996. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on agricultural grassland production. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 79: 243-252.

Jongen, M. and Jones, M.B. 1998. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant biomass production and competition in a simulated neutral grassland community. Annals of Botany 82: 111-123.

Luscher, A., Daepp, M., Blum, H., Hartwig, U.A. and Nosberger, J. 2004. Fertile temperate grassland under elevated atmospheric CO2 - role of feed-back mechanisms and availability of growth resources. European Journal of Agronomy 21: 379-398.

Maestre, F.T. and Reynolds, J.F. 2007. Biomass responses to elevated CO2, soil heterogeneity and diversity: an experimental assessment with grassland assemblages. Oecologia 151: 512-520.

Marks, S., and Clay, K. 1990. Effects of CO2 enrichment, nutrient addition, and fungal endophyte-infection on the growth of two grasses. Oecologia 84: 207-214.

Morison, J.I.L. and Gifford, R.M. 1984. Plant growth and water use with limited water supply in high CO2 concentrations. II. Plant dry weight, partitioning and water use efficiency. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 11: 375-384.

Nijs, I., Impens, I. and Behaeghe, T. 1988. Effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on gas exchange and growth of perennial ryegrass. Photosynthetica 22: 44-50.

Nijs, I. and Impens, I. 1997. An analysis of the balance between root and shoot activity in Lolium perenne cv Melvina. Effects of CO2 concentration and air temperature. New Phytologist 135: 81-91.

Overdieck, D. 1986. Long-term effects of an increased CO2 concentration on terrestrial plants in model ecosystems. Morphology and reproduction of Trifolium repens L. and Lolium perenne L. International Journal of Biometerology 30: 323-332.

Overdieck, D. and Bossemeyer, D. 1985. Longterm effects of CO2 enrichment on CO2 gas exchange of a model-ecosystem. Angewandte Botanik 59: 179-198.

Overdieck, D. and Reining, F. 1986. Effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) competing in managed model-ecosystems. I. Phytomass production. Acta Oecologia/Oecologia Plantarum 7: 357-366.

Saebo, A. and Mortensen, L.M. 1995. Growth and regrowth of Phleum pratense, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens and Trifolium pratense at normal and elevated CO2 concentration. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 55: 29-35.

Schadler, M., Roeder, M., Brandl, R. and Matthies, D. 2007. Interacting effects of elevated CO2, nutrient availability and plant species on a generalist invertebrate herbivore. Global Change Biology 13: 1005-1015.

Schneider, M.K., Luscher, A., Frossard, E. and Nosberger, J. 2006. An overlooked carbon source for grassland soils: loss of structural carbon from stubble in response to elevated pCO2 and nitrogen supply. New Phytologist 172: 117-126.

Schneider, M.K., Luscher, A., Richter, M., Aeschlimann, U., Hartwig, U.A., Blum, H., Frossard, E. and Nosberger, J. 2004. Ten years of free-air CO2 enrichment altered the mobilization of N from soil in Lolium perenne L. swards. Global Change Biology 10: 1377-1388.

Soussana, J.-F., Teyssonneyre, F., Picon-Cochard, C. and Dawson, L. 2005. A trade-off between nitrogen uptake and use increases responsiveness to elevated CO2 in infrequently cut mixed C3 grasses. New Phytologist 166: 217-230.

Tang, J., Chen, J. and Chen, X. 2006. Response of 12 weedy species to elevated CO2 in low-phosphorus-availability soil. Ecological Research 21: 664-670.

Teyssonneyre, F., Picon-Cochard, C. and Soussana, J.F. 2002. How can we predict the effects of elevated CO2 on the balance between perennial C3 grass species competing for light? New Phytologist 154: 53-64.

Van Ginkel, J.H., Gorissen, A. and van Veen, J.A. 1996. Long-term decomposition of grass roots as affected by elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Environmental Quality 25: 1122-1128.

Weigel, H.J. and Manderscheid, R. 2005. CO2 enrichment effects on forage and grain nitrogen content of pasture and cereal plants. Journal of Crop Improvement 13: 73-89.

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