Fertility Relative to Fertility at Current pH

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Purple Sea Urchin [Paracentrotus lividus]

Statistics  
  Decline in pH from the Present
 
0.0 to 0.09
0.09 to 0.17
0.17 to 0.3
0.3 to 0.5
More than 0.5
Number of Results
 
 
8
9
29
Arithmetic Mean
 
 
1
0.98
0.85
Standard Error
 
 
0
0.01
0.05

Individual Experiement Results  
      Decline in pH from the Present    

Journal References

Experimental Conditions
0.0
to
0.09
0.09
to
0.17
0.17
to
0.3
0.3
to
0.5
More
than
0.5

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

1.00

 

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

1.00

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

1.00

 

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

1.00

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of fertilization success for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) 2 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

1.00

 

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

1.00

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.35

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

1.00

 

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

1.00

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the gastrula stage 23 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.35

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

1.00

 

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

1.00

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

1.00

 

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

1.00

 

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Martin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos reaching the pluteus (4-arm) stage 46 hours post-fertilization. Temperature was 20C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

1.00

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos developing an elevated normal fertilization mebrane 120 minutes after mixing sperm and eggs. Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

0.92

 

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos developing an elevated normal fertilization mebrane 120 minutes after mixing sperm and eggs. Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.66

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos developing an elevated normal fertilization mebrane 120 minutes after mixing sperm and eggs. Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.00

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos developing an elevated normal fertilization mebrane 120 minutes after mixing sperm and eggs. Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

0.93

 

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos developing an elevated normal fertilization mebrane 120 minutes after mixing sperm and eggs. Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.81

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos developing an elevated normal fertilization mebrane 120 minutes after mixing sperm and eggs. Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.04

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

0.98

 

 

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

0.99

 

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.92

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.95

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.77

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

0.99

 

 

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.98

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.96

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.96

Moulin et al. (2011)

Percentage of normal pluteus larvae for Purple Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) . Temperature was 14C and pH was altered by the addition of CO2.
 

 

 

 

0.84


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