Photosynthesis (Net CO2 Exchange Rate) References
Picea abies [Norway Spruce]

Dalen, L.S. and Johnsen, O. 2004. CO2 enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and development of freezing tolerance in Norway spruce. Trees 18: 10-18.

Egli, P., Maurer, S., Gunthardt-Goerg, M.S. and Korner, C. 1998. Effects of elevated CO2 and soil quality on leaf gas exchange and aboveground growth in beech-spruce model ecosystems. New Phytologist 140: 185-196.

Hall, M., Medlyn, B.E., Abramowitz, G., Franklin, O., Rantfors, M., Linder, S. and Wallin, G. 2013. Which are the most important parameters for modelling carbon assimilation in boreal Norway spruce under elevated [CO2] and temperature conditions? Tree Physiology 33: 1156-1176.

Hall, M., Rantfors, M., Slaney, M., Linder, S. and Wallin, G. 2009. Carbon dioxide exchange of buds and developing shoots of boreal Norway spruce exposed to elevated or ambient CO2 concentration and temperature in whole-tree chambers. Tree Physiology 29: 467-481.

Kosvancova, M., Urban, O., Sprtova, M., Hrstka, M., Kalina, J., Tomaskova, I., Spunda, V. and Marek, M.V. 2009. Photosynthetic induction in broadleaved Fagus sylvatica and coniferous Picea abies cultivated under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. Plant Science 177: 123-130.

Lhotakova, Z., Urban, O., Dubankova, M., Cvikrova, M., Tomaskova, I., Kubinova, L., Zvara, K., Marek, M.W. and Albrechtova, J. 2012. The impact of long-term CO2 enrichment on sun and shade needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies): Photosynthetic performance, needle anatomy and phenolics accumulation. Plant Science 188-189: 60-70.

Loewe, A., Einig, W., Shi, L., Dizengremel, P. and Hampp, R. 2000. Mycorrhiza formation and elevated CO2 both increase the capacity for sucrose synthesis in source leaves of spruce and aspen. New Phytologist 145: 565-574.

Roberntz, P. and Stockfors, J. 1998. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration and nutrition on net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and needle respiration of field-grown Norway spruce trees. Tree Physiology 18: 233-241.

Spunda, V., Kalina, J., Cajanek, M., Pavlickova, H. and Marek, M.V. 1998. Long-term exposure of Norway spruce to elevated CO2 concentration induces changes in photosystem II mimicking an adaptation to increased irradiance. Journal of Plant Physiology 152: 413-419.

Uddling, J. and Wallin, G. 2012. Interacting effects of elevated CO2 and weather variability on photosynthesis of mature boreal Norway spruce agree with biochemical model predictions. Tree Physiology 32: 1509-1521.

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