Photosynthesis (Net CO2 Exchange Rate) References
Liquidambar styraciflua L. [Sweetgum]

DeLucia, E.H. and Thomas, R.B.  2000.  Photosynthetic responses to CO2 enrichment of four hardwood species in a forest understory.  Oecologia 122: 11-19.

DeLucia, E.H., Moore, D.J. and Norby, R.J.  2005.  Contrasting responses of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2: Implications for the global C cycle.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19: 10.1029/2004GB002346.

Ellsworth, D.S., Reich, P.B., Naumburg, E.S., Koch, G.W., Kubiske, M.E. and Smith, S.D.  2004.  Photosynthesis, carboxylation and leaf nitrogen responses of 16 species to elevated pCO2 across four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest, grassland and desert.  Global Change Biology 10: 2121-2138.

Fetcher, N., Jaeger, C.H., Strain, B.R. and Sionit, N.  1988.  Long-term elevation of atmospheric CO2 concentration and the carbon exchange rates of saplings of Pinus taeda L. and Liquidamber styraciflua L.  Tree Physiology 4: 255-262.

Gunderson, C.A., Sholtis, J.D., Wullschleger, D., Tissue, D.T., Hanson, P.J. and Norby, R.J.  2002.  Environmental and stomatal control of photosynthetic enhancement in the canopy of a sweetgum (Liquidamabar stryraciflua L.) plantation during 3 years of CO2 enrichment.  Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 379-393.

Herrick, J.D. and Thomas, R.B.  2001.  No photosynthetic down-regulation in sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) after three years of CO2 enrichment at the Duke Forest FACE experiment.  Plant, Cell and Environment 24: 53-64.

Herrick, J.D. and Thomas, R.B. 2003.  Leaf senescence and late-season net photosynthesis of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) grown in elevated and ambient carbon dioxide concentrations.  Tree Physiology 23: 109-118.

Sholtis, J.D., Gunderson, C.A., Norby, R.J. and Tissue, D.T.  2004.  Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO2 in a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forest stand.  New Phytologist 162: 343-354.

Springer, C.J. and Thomas, R.B. 2007. Photosynthetic responses of forest understory tree species to long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide concentration at the Duke Forest FACE experiment. Tree Physiology 27: 25-32.

Tolley, L.C. and Strain, B.R.  1985.  Effects of CO2 enrichment and water stress on gas exchange of Liquidamber styraciflua and Pinus taeda seedlings grown under different irradiance levels.  Oecologia 65: 166-172.

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