Dry Weight (Biomass) References
Betula pendula Roth [European White Birch]

Esmeijer-Liu, A.J., Aerts, R., Kurschner, W.M., Bobbink, R., Lotter, A.F. and Verhoeven, J.T.A. 2009. Nitrogen enrichment lowers Betula pendula green and yellow leaf stoichiometry irrespective of effects of elevated carbon dioxide. Plant and Soil 316: 311-322.

Hao, G.-Y., Holbrook, N.M., Zwieniecki, M.A., Gutschick, V.P. and BassiriRad, H. 2018. Coordinated responses of plant hydraulic architecture with the reduction of stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 concentration. Tree Physiology 38: 1041-1052.

Heath, J., Ayres, E., Possell, M., Bardgett, R.D., Black, H.I.J., Grant, H., Ineson, P. and Kerstiens, G. 2005. Rising atmospheric CO2 reduces sequestration of root-derived soil carbon. Science 309: 1711-1713.

Hoosbeek, M.R., Lukac, M., Velthorst, E., Smith, A.R. and Godbold, D.L. 2011. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales. Biogeosciences 8: 353-364.

Huttunen, L., Niemela, P., Peltola, H., Heiska, S., Rousi, M. and Kellomaki, S. 2007. Is a defoliated silver birch seedling able to overcompensate the growth under changing climate? Environmental and Experimental Botany 60: 227-238.

Ineson, P., Cotrufo, M.F., Bol, R., Harkness, D.D. and Blum, H. 1996. Quantification of soil carbon inputs under elevated CO2: C3 plants in a C4 soil. Plant and Soil 187: 345-350.

Kuokkanen, K., Niemela, P., Matala, J., Julkunen-Tiitto, R., Heinonen, J., Rousi, M., Henttonen, H., Tahvanainen, J. and Kellomaki, S. 2004. The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the resistance of winter-dormant birch seedlings (Betula pendula) to hares and voles. Global Change Biology 10: 1504-1512.

Lavola, A., Julkunen-Tiitto, R., de la Rosa, T.M., Lehto, T. and Aphalo, P.J. 2000. Allocation of carbon to growth and secondary metabolites in birch seedlings under UV-B radiation and CO2 exposure. Physiologia Plantarum 109: 260-267.

Mattson, W.J., Kuokkanen, K., Niemela, P., Julkunen-Tiitto, R., Kellomaki, S. and Tahvanainen, J. 2004. Elevated CO2 alters birch resistance to Lagomorpha herbivores. Global Change Biology 10: 1402-1413.

Rey, A. and Jarvis, P.G. 1997. Growth response of young birch trees (Betula pendula Roth.) after four and a half years of CO2 exposure. Annals of Botany 80: 809-816.

Riikonen, J., Lindsberg, M.-M., Holopainen, T., Oksanen, E., Lappi, J., Peltonen, P. and Vapaavuori, E. 2004. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone. Tree Physiology 24: 1227-1237.

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