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Lake Tanganyika, East Africa
Reference
Tierney, J.E., Mayes, M.T., Meyer, N., Johnson, C., Swarzenski, P.W., Cohen, A.S. and Russell, J.M. 2010. Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500. Nature Geoscience 3: 422-425.

Description
Working with sediment cores extracted from East Africa's Lake Tanganyika near the remote and sparsely settled Mahale Mountains (6°33.147'S, 29°58.480'E), the authors developed a 1500-year history of lake-surface water temperature (LST) using the TEX86 proxy technique, which relates the degree of cyclization of aquatic archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers that are found in membrane lipids of certain marine picoplankton to LST. This work revealed the existence of "a period of extended warmth between AD 1100 and 1400," which clearly represents the Medieval Warm Period. And the peak LST of this period was 1.4°C cooler than the peak LST at the end of the 20th century.