How does rising atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms?

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Cold Air Cave, Makapansgat Valley of South Africa
Tyson, P.D., Karlen, W., Holmgren, K. and Heiss, G.A.  2000.  The Little Ice Age and medieval warming in South Africa.  South African Journal of Science 96: 121-126.

Maximum annual air temperatures in the vicinity of Cold Air Cave (241'S, 2911'E) in the Makapansgat Valley of South Africa were inferred from a relationship between color variations in banded growth-layer laminations of a well-dated stalagmite and the air temperature of a surrounding 49-station climatological network developed over the period 1981-1995, as well as from a quasi-decadal-resolution record of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes.  The Medieval Warm Period (AD 1000-1325) was as much as 3-4C warmer than the Current Warm Period (AD 1961-1990 mean).