How does rising atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms?

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ENSO (Relationship to Global Warming)

Material in this section originates from the following categories in our Subject Index:

El Niño (Relationship to Global Warming)
ENSO (Relationship to Global Warming)
La Niña (Relationship to Global Warming)

Material preceded by an asterisk (*) was posted after this subject summary was written and therefore is not included in the summary.  This material will be integrated into the summary at a later date.


* -- The Global Warming-ENSO Connection

* -- ENSO: A Permanent Feature of a Future Warmer World?

* -- ENSO Variability Over the Past Millennium

* -- Implications of an Extended Multivariate ENSO Index

* -- Central Pacific El Niño Events

* -- Intensified El Niños in the Central Equatorial Pacific

* -- How Does Global Warming Impact the El Niño-Southern Oscillation?

* -- Global Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity: 2000-2009 and Beyond

* -- The Medieval Climate Anomaly

* -- A New-and-Improved 457-Year History of ENSO Variability

* -- ENSO Activity and Climate Change

* -- The Past Half-Century of ENSO Behavior

* -- Coral Bleaching in the South China Sea

* -- 20th-Century and Medieval Droughts: Differences, Similarities and Implications

* -- Mid-Holocene Surface Temperatures of the South China Sea

* -- Climate Model Predictions of CO2-Induced ENSO Changes

* -- A Precipitation History of the Southwestern United States

* -- Effects of Global Warming on El Niños

* -- PDO-ENSO Interactions Over the Past Four Centuries

* -- Global Warming and El Niños

* -- 6200 Years of ENSO Activity Derived from Galápagos Data

* -- Abrupt Changes in the Asian Monsoon

* -- 15,000 Years of ENSO Activity in the Santa Barbara Basin of California, USA

* -- 20th-Century ENSO Events

* -- Five Hundred Years of ENSO

* -- More Problems for the Mann et al. Temperature Record

* -- Medieval Drought in Peru (and Elsewhere): What Does It Tell Us about El Niños and Medieval Temperatures?

ENSO Activity Over the Mid to Late Holocene

ENSO Activity Over the Past Millennium

A Christmas Island El Niño History

El Niño Activity and Sea-Ice Extent in a South Pole Ice Core

ENSO Variability Over the Past Millennium

Twelve Thousand Years of ENSO Activity

Four Centuries of ENSO Activity Reconstructed From Coral δ18O Data

A 7,000-Year Record of El Niño Activity

More Warmth Means a More Stable Climate

Climate Variability Over the Holocene

Recent Strong El Niños Nothing New

Once Again, It's Measurements Versus Models

In Search of Past El Niños

A 1400-Year Record of ENSO Variability

A 300-Year Examination of "Persistent" ENSO Events