How does rising atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms?

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Vardø, Northern Norway
Divine, D., Isaksson, E., Martma, T., Meijer, H.A.J., Moore, J., Pohjola, V., van de Wal, R.S.W. and Godtliebsen, F. 2011. Thousand years of winter surface air temperature variations in Svalbard and northern Norway reconstructed from ice-core data. Polar Research 30: 10.3402/polar.v30i0.7379.

Working with ice cores extracted from Svalbard at Lomonosovfonna in 1997 and at Holtedahlfonna in 2005, Divine et al. used the δ18O data derived from them to reconstruct a 1200-year winter (DecJanFeb) surface air temperature history for Vardø (70.54°N, 30.61°E) in northern Norway by calibrating (scaling) the δ18O data to corresponding historically-observed temperatures at that location. And as may be seen from the figure below, the 11-year running-mean peak winter temperature of the Medieval Warm Period was approximately 3.3°C greater than the end-of-record 11-year running-mean peak winter temperature.

Figure 1. Reconstructed winter surface air temperature (SAT) for Vardo. Adapted from Divine et al. (2011).