How does rising atmospheric CO2 affect marine organisms?

Click to locate material archived on our website by topic

CO2, Global Warming and Coral Reefs
Prospects for the Future

Part 2 References

Al-Moghrabi, S., Goiran, C., Allemand, D., Speziale, N. and Jaubert, J. 1996. Inorganic carbon uptake for photosynthesis by the symbiotic coral-dinoflagelate association. 2. Mechanisms for bicarbonate uptake. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 199: 227-248.

Allemand, D., Tambutte, E., Girard, J.-P. and Jaubert, J. 1998. Organic matrix synthesis in the scleractinian coral stylophora pistillata: role in biomineralization and potential target of the organotin tributyltin. Journal of Experimental Biology 201: 2001-2009.

Atkinson, M.J., Carlson, B.A. and Crow, G.L. 1995. Coral growth in high-nutrient, low-pH seawater: A case study of corals cultured at the Waikiki Aquarium, Honolulu, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 14: 215-223.

Attrill, M.J., Wright, J. and Edwards, M. 2007. Climate-related increases in jellyfish frequency suggest a more gelatinous future for the North Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 52: 480-485.

Barnes, D.J. and Chalker, B.E. 1990. Calcification and photosynthesis in reef-building corals and algae. Dubinsky, Z, ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 109-131.

Battey, J.F. and Patton, J.S. 1984. A reevaluation of the role of glycerol in carbon translocation in zooxanthellae-coelenterate symbiosis. Marine Biology 79: 27-38.

Beardall, J., Beer, S. and Raven, J.A. 1998. Biodiversity of marine plants in an era of climate change: Some predictions based on physiological performance. Bot. Mar. 41: 113-123.

Beer, S. and Rehnberg, J. 1997. The acquisition of inorganic carbon by the sea grass Zostera marina. Aquatic Botany 56: 277-283.

Berge, J.A., Bjerkeng, B., Pettersen, O., Schaanning, M.T. and Oxnevad, S. 2006. Effects of increased sea water concentrations of CO2 on growth of the bivalve Mytilus edulis L. Chemosphere 62: 681-687.

Bessat, F. and Buigues, D. 2001. Two centuries of variation in coral growth in a massive Porites colony from Moorea (French Polynesia): a response of ocean-atmosphere variability from south central Pacific. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 175: 381-392.

Bjork, M., Axelsson, L. and Beer, S. 2004. Why is Ulva intestinalis the only macroalga inhabiting isolated rockpools along the Swedish Atlantic coast? Marine Ecology Progress Series 284: 109-116.

Borowitzka, M.A. and Larkum, W.D. 1976. Calcification in the green alga Halimeda. III. The sources of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis and calcification and a model of the mechanisms of calcification. Journal of Experimental Botany 27: 879-893.

Brand, L.E. 1981. Genetic variability in reproduction rates in marine phytoplankton populations. Evolution 38: 1117-1127.

Brand, L.E. 1982. Genetic variability and spatial patterns of genetic differentiation in the reproductive rates of the marine coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Limnology and Oceanography 27: 236-245.

Brand, L.E. 1984. The salinity tolerance of forty-six marine phytoplankton isolates. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 18: 543-556.

Brussaard, C.P.D., Gast, G.J., van Duyl, F.C. and Riegman, R. 1996. Impact of phytoplankton bloom magnitude on a pelagic microbial food web. Marine Ecology Progress Series 144: 211-221.

Buddemeier, R.W. 1994. Symbiosis, calcification, and environmental interactions. Bulletin Institut Oceanographique, Monaco, no. special 13, pp. 119-131.

Buddemeier, R.W. and Fautin, D.G. 1996a. Saturation state and the evolution and biogeography of symbiotic calcification. Bulletin Institut Oceanographique, Monaco, no. special 14, pp. 23-32.

Buddemeier, R.W. and Fautin, D.G. 1996b . Global CO2 and evolution among the Scleractinia. Bulletin Institut Oceanographique, Monaco, no. special 14, pp. 33-38.

Buddemeier, R.W., Kleypas, J.A. and Aronson, R.B. 2004. Coral Reefs & Global Climate Change: Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems. The Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, USA.

Buddemeier, R.W. and Smith, S.V. 1999. Coral adaptation and acclimatization: A most ingenious paradox. American Zoologist 39: 1-9.

Burris, J.E., Porter, J.W. and Laing, W.A. 1983. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration on coral photosynthesis. Coral Reefs 75: 113-116.

Caldeira, K. and Wickett, M.E. 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425: 365.

Carlson, B.A. 1999. Organism responses to rapid change: What aquaria tell us about nature. American Zoologist 39: 44-55.

Carotenuto, Y., Putzeys, S., Simonelli, P., Paulino, A., Meyerhofer, M., Suffrian, K., Antia, A. and Nejstgaard, J.C. 2007. Copepod feeding and reproduction in relation to phytoplankton development during the PeECE III mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences Discussions 4: 3913-3936.

Carricart-Ganivet, J.P. 2004. Sea surface temperature and the growth of the West Atlantic reef-building coral Montastraea annularis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 302: 249-260.

Chalker, B.E. and Taylor, D.L. 1975. Light-enhanced calcification and the role of oxidative phosphorylation in calcification of the coral Acropora cervicornis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 190: 323-331.

Chen, X. and Gao, K. 2004. Characterization of diurnal photosynthetic rhythms in the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum grown in synchronous culture under ambient and elevated CO2. Functional Plant Biology 31: 399-404.

Clausen, C.D. and Roth, A.A. 1975. Effect of temperature and temperature adaptation on calcification rate in the hematypic Pocillopora damicornis. Coral Reefs 33: 93-100.

Coles, S.L. and Jokiel, P.L. 1977. Effects of temperature on photosynthesis and respiration in hermatypic corals. Coral Reefs 43: 209-216.

Conte, M., Thompson, A., Lesley, D. and Harris, R.P. 1998. Genetic and physiological influences on the alkenone/alkenonate versus growth temperature relationship in Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62: 51-68.

Crabbe, M.J.C., Wilson, M.E.J. and Smith, D.J. 2006. Quaternary corals from reefs in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, SE Sulawesi, Indonesia, show similar growth rates to modern corals from the same area. Journal of Quaternary Science 21: 803-809.

Crossland, C.J. and Barnes, D.J. 1974. The role of metabolic nitrogen in coral calcification. Coral Reefs 28: 325-332.

Cuif, J.-P., Dauphin, Y., Freiwald, A., Gautret, P. and Zibrowius, H. 1999. Biochemical markers of zooxanthellae symbiosis in soluble matrices of skeleton of 24 Scleractinia species. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 123: 269-278.

De'ath, G., Lough, J.M. and Fabricius, K.E. 2009. Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 323: 116-119.

Egge, J., Thingstad, F., Engel, A., Bellerby, R.G.J. and Riebesell, U. 2007. Primary production at elevated nutrient and pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences Discussions 4: 4385-4410.

Engel, A. 2002. Direct relationship between CO2 uptake and transparent exopolymer particles production in natural phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 24: 49-53.

Feng, Y., Warner, M.E., Zhang, Y., Sun, J., Fu, F.-X., Rose, J.M. and Hutchins, A. 2008. Interactive effects of increased pCO2, temperature and irradiance on the marine coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 43: 87-98.

Frankignoulle, M., Gattuso, J.-P., Biondo, R., Bourge, I., Copin-Montegut, G. and Pichon, M. 1996. Carbon fluxes in coral reefs. II. Eulerian study of inorganic carbon dynamics and measurement of air-sea CO2 exchanges. Marine Ecology Progress Series 145: 123-132.

Gao, K., Aruga, Y., Asada, K., Ishihara, T., Akano, T. and Kiyohara, M. 1993b. Calcification in the articulated coralline alga Corallina pilulifera, with special reference to the effect of elevated CO2 concentration. Coral Reefs 117: 129-132.

Gao, K., Aruga, Y., Asada, K. and Kiyohara, M. 1993a. Influence of enhanced CO2 on growth and photosynthesis of the red algae Gracilaria sp. and G chilensis. Journal of Applied Phycology 5: 563-571.

Gattuso, J.-P., Allemand, D. and Frankignoulle, M. 1999. Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels in coral reefs: A review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry. American Zoologist 39: 160-183.

Gattuso, J.-P., Frankignoulle, M., Bourge, I., Romaine, S. and Buddemeier, R.W. 1998. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification. Global and Planetary Change 18: 37-46.

Gattuso, J.-P., Pichon, M., Delesalle, B., Canon, C. and Frankignoulle, M. 1996. Carbon fluxes in coral reefs. I. Lagrangian measurement of community metabolism and resulting air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. Marine Ecology Progress Series 145: 109-121.

Gautret, P., Cuif, J.-P. and Freiwald, A. 1997. Composition of soluble mineralizing matrices in zooxanthellate and non-zooxanthellate scleractinian corals: Biochemical assessment of photosynthetic metabolism through the study of a skeletal feature. Facies 36: 189-194.

Gnaiger, E., Gluth, G. and Weiser, W. 1978. pH fluctuations in an intertidal beach in Bermuda. Limnology and Oceanography 23: 851-857.

Goiran, C., Al-Moghrabi, S., Allemand, D. and Jaubert, J. 1996. Inorganic carbon uptake for photosynthesis by the symbiotic coral/dinoflagellate association. 1. Photosynthetic performances of symbionts and dependence on sea water bicarbonate. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 199: 207-225.

Goreau, T.F. 1959. The physiology of skeleton formation in corals. I. A method for measuring the rate of calcium deposition by corals under different conditions. Biological Bulletin 116: 59-75.

Grigg, R.W. 1981. Coral reef development at high latitudes in Hawaii. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium, Manila, Vol. 1: 687-693.

Grigg, R.W. 1997. Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain - revisited. Coral Reefs 16: S33-S38.

Gutowska, M.A., Pörtner, H.O. and Melzner, F. 2008. Growth and calcification in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under elevated seawater pCO2. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373: 303-309.

Hansen, P.J. 2002. The effect of high pH on the growth and survival of marine phytoplankton: implications for species succession. Aquatic Microbiology and Ecology 28: 279-288.

Heemann, C. 2002. Phytoplanktonexsudation in Abhangigkeit der Meerwasserkarbonatchemie. Diplom. Thesis, ICBM, University of Oldenburg, Germany.

Herfort, L., Thake, B. and Taubner, I. 2008. Bicarbonate stimulation of calcification and photosynthesis in two hermatypic corals. Journal of Phycology 44: 91-98.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 839-866.

Holland, H.D. 1984. The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Holligan, P.M. and Robertson, J.E. 1996. Significance of ocean carbonate budgets for the global carbon cycle. Global Change Biology 2: 85-95.

Idso, K.E. 1992. Plant responses to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide: A compilation and analysis of the results of a decade of international research into the direct biological effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Tempe, AZ: Office of Climatology, Arizona State University.

Idso, K.E. and Idso, S.B. 1994. Plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment in the face of environmental constraints: A review of the past 10 years' research. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 69: 153-203.

Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., Halloran, P.R., Rickaby, R.E.M., Hall, I.R., Colmenero-Hidalgo, E., Gittins, J.R., Green, D.R.H., Tyrrell, T., Gibbs, S.J., von Dassow, P., Rehm, E., Armbrust, E.V. and Boessenkool, K.P. 2008. Phytoplankton calcification in a high-CO2 world. Science 320: 336-340.

IPCC, 2007a. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 976pp.

IPCC, 2007b. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

Kajiwara, K., Nagai, A. and Ueno, S. 1995. Examination of the effect of temperature, light intensity and zooxanthellae concentration on calcification and photosynthesis of scleractinian coral Acropora pulchra. J. School Mar. Sci. Technol. 40: 95-103.

Kawaguti, S. and Sakumoto, D. 1948. The effects of light on the calcium deposition of corals. Bulletin of the Oceanographic Institute of Taiwan 4: 65-70.

Kimball, B.A. 1983. Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield: An assemblage and analysis of 430 prior observations. Agronomy Journal 75: 779-788.

Kirby, R.R., Beaugrand, G., Lindley, J.A., Richardson, A.J., Edwards, M. and Reid, P.C. 2007. Climate effects and benthic-pelagic coupling in the North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 330: 31-38.

Kleypas, J.A., Buddemeier, R.W., Archer, D., Gattuso, J-P., Langdon, C. and Opdyke, B.N. 1999. Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284: 118-120.

Langdon, C., Takahashi, T., Sweeney, C., Chipman, D., Goddard, J., Marubini, F., Aceves, H., Barnett, H. and Atkinson, M.J. 2000. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14: 639-654.

Langer, G. and Geisen, M., Baumann, K.-H., Klas, J. , Riebesell, U., Thoms, S. and Young, J.R. 2006. Species-specific responses of calcifying algae to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 7: 10.1029/2005GC001227.

Larsen, J.B., Larsen, A., Thyrhaug, R., Bratbak, G. and Sandaa R.-A. 2007. Marine viral populations detected during a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom at elevated pCO2 levels. Biogeosciences Discussions 4: 3961-3985.

Lindholm, T. and Nummelin, C. 1999. Red tide of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra (Dinophyta) in a ferry-mixed coastal inlet. Hydrobiologia 393: 245-251.

Loaiciga, H.A. 2006. Modern-age buildup of CO2 and its effects on seawater acidity and salinity. Geophysical Research Letters 33: 10.1029/2006GL026305.

Lough, J.M. and Barnes, D.J. 1997. Several centuries of variation in skeletal extension, density and calcification in massive Porites colonies from the Great Barrier Reef: A proxy for seawater temperature and a background of variability against which to identify unnatural change. Journal of Experimental and Marine Biology and Ecology 211: 29-67.

Lough, J.B. and Barnes, D.J. 2000. Environmental controls on growth of the massive coral Porites. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 245: 225-243.

Macedo, M.F., Duarte, P., Mendes, P. and Ferreira, G. 2001. Annual variation of environmental variables, phytoplankton species composition and photosynthetic parameters in a coastal lagoon. Journal of Plankton Research 23: 719-732.

Marubini, F. and Thake, B. 1998. Coral calcification and photosynthesis: evidence for carbon limitation. In: International Society for Reef Studies (ISRS), European Meeting, Perpignan, September 1-4, 1998, p. 119.

McNeil, B.I., Matear, R.J. and Barnes, D.J. 2004. Coral reef calcification and climate change: The effect of ocean warming. Geophysical Research Letters 31: 10.1029/2004GL021541.

Medlin, L.K., Barker, G.L.A., Green, J.C., Hayes, D.E., Marie, D., Wreiden, S. and Vaulot, D. 1996. Genetic characterization of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Journal of Marine Systems 9: 13-32.

Menendez, M., Martinez, M. and Comin, F.A. 2001. A comparative study of the effect of pH and inorganic carbon resources on the photosynthesis of three floating macroalgae species of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 256: 123-136.

Mercado, J.M., Niell, F.X. and Gil-Rodriguez, M.C. 2001. Photosynthesis might be limited by light, not inorganic carbon availability, in three intertidal Gelidiales species. New Phytologist 149: 431-439.

Mercado, J.M., Niell, F.X., Silva, J. and Santos, R. 2003. Use of light and inorganic carbon acquisition by two morphotypes of Zostera noltii Hornem. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 297: 71-84.

Middelboe, A.L. and Hansen, P.J. 2007. High pH in shallow-water macroalgal habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 338: 107-117.

Muscatine, L. 1967. Glycerol excretion by symbiotic algae from corals and Tridacna and its control by the host. Science 156: 516-519.

Muscatine, L. 1990. The role of symbiotic algae in carbon and energy flux in reef corals. Coral Reefs 25: 1-29.

Muscatine, L., Goiran, C., Land, L., Jaubert, J., Cuif, J.-P. and Allemand, D. 2005. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of organic matrix from coral skeleton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 1525-1530.

Nie, B., Chen, T., Liang, M., Wang, Y., Zhong, J. and Zhu, Y. 1997. Relationship between coral growth rate and sea surface temperature in the northern part of South China Sea. Sci. China Ser. D 40: 173-182.

Nimer, N.A. and Merrett, M.J. 1993. Calcification rate in Emiliania huxleyi Lohmann in response to light, nitrate and availability of inorganic carbon. New Phytologist 123: 673-677.

Paasche, E. 2002. A review of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi ((Prymnesiophyceae), with particular reference to growth, coccolith formation, and calcification-photosynthesis interactions. Phycologia 40: 503-529.

Paulino, A.I., Egge, J.K. and Larsen, A. 2007. Effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on small and intermediate sized osmotrophs during a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom. Biogeosciences Discussions 4: 4173-4195.

Pearson, G.A., Serrao, E.A. and Brawley, S.H. 1998. Control of gamete release in fucoid algae: sensing hydrodynamic conditions via carbon acquisition. Ecology 79: 1725-1739.

Pelejero, C., Calvo, E., McCulloch, M.T., Marshall, J.F., Gagan, M.K., Lough, J.M. and Opdyke, B.N. 2005. Preindustrial to modern interdecadal variability in coral reef pH. Science 309: 2204-2207.

Pittock, A.B. 1999. Coral reefs and environmental change: Adaptation to what? American Zoologist 39: 10-29.

Rands, M.L., Douglas, A.E., Loughman, B.C. and Ratclifffe, R.G. 1992. Avoidance of hypoxia in a cnidarian symbiosis by algal photosynthetic oxygen. Biological Bulletin 182: 159-162.

Raven, J.A. 1991. Physiology of inorganic C acquisition and implications for resource use efficiency by marine phytoplankton: Relation to increased CO2 and temperature. Plant, Cell and Environment 14: 779-794.

Raven, J.A. 1997. Inorganic carbon acquisition by marine autotrophs. Advances in Botanical Research 27: 85-209.

Raven, J.A., Osborne, B.A. and Johnston, A.M. 1985. Uptake of CO2 by aquatic vegetation. Plant, Cell and Environment 8: 417-425.

Reynaud, S., Ferrier-Pages, C., Boisson, F., Allemand, D. and Fairbanks, R.G. 2004. Effect of light and temperature on calcification and strontium uptake in the scleractinian coral Acropora verweyi. Marine Ecology Progress Series 279: 105-112.

Reynaud, S., Ferrier-Pages, C., Meibom, A., Mostefaoui, S., Mortlock, R., Fairbanks, R. and Allemand, D. 2007. Light and temperature effects on Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in the scleractinian coral Acropora sp. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71: 354-362.

Reynaud-Vaganay, S., Gattuso, J.P., Cuif, J.P., Jaubert, J. and Juillet-Leclerc, A. 1999. A novel culture technique for scleractinian corals: Application to investigate changes in skeletal δ18O as a function of temperature. Marine Ecology Progress Series 180: 121-130.

Riebesell, U. 2004. Effects of CO2 enrichment on marine phytoplankton. Journal of Oceanography 60: 719-729.

Richardson, A.J. and Gibbons, M.J. 2008. Are jellyfish increasing in response to ocean acidification? Limnology and Oceanography 53: 2040-2045.

Riding, R. 1996. Long-term change in marine CaCO3 precipitation. Mem. Soc. Geol. Fr. 169: 157-166.

Riebesell, U., Bellerby, R.G.J., Grossart, H.-P. and Thingstad, F. 2008. Mesocosm CO2 perturbation studies: from organism to community level. Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 641-659.

Riebesell, U., Schulz, K., Bellerby, R., Botros, M., Fritsche, P., Meyerhofer, M., Neill, C., Nondal, G., Oschlies, A., Wohlers, J. and Zollner, E. 2007. Enhanced biological carbon consumption in a high CO2 ocean. Nature 450: 10.1038/nature06267.

Riebesell, U., Wolf-Gladrow, D.A. and Smetacek, V. 1993. Carbon dioxide limitation of marine phytoplankton growth rates. Nature 361: 249-251.

Rinkevich, B. and Loya, Y. 1984. Does light enhance calcification in hermatypic corals? Coral Reefs 80: 1-6.

Rosenzweig, C. and others. 2007. Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. In Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E. (Eds.) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 79-131.

Santhanam, R., Srinivasan, A., Ramadhas, V. and Devaraj, M. 1994. Impact of Trichodesmium bloom on the plankton and productivity in the Tuticorin bay, southeast coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Science 23: 27-30.

Scoffin, T.P., Tudhope, A.W., Brown, B.E., Chansang, H. and Cheeney, R.F. 1992. Patterns and possible environmental controls of skeletogenesis of Porites lutea, South Thailand. Coral Reefs 11: 1-11.

Simkiss, K. 1964. Phosphates as crystal poisons of calcification. Biological Review 39: 487-505.

Smith, S.V. and Buddemeier, R.W. 1992. Global change and coral reef ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 23: 89-118.

Sobrino, C., Ward, M.L. and Neale, P.J. 2008. Acclimation to elevated carbon dioxide and ultraviolet radiation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: Effects on growth, photosynthesis, and spectral sensitivity of photoinhibition. Limnology and Oceanography 53: 494-505.

Stolte, W., Kraay, G.W., Noordeloos, A.A.M. and Riegman, R. 2000. Genetic and physiological variation in pigment composition of Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae) and the potential use of its pigment ratios as a quantitative physiological marker. Journal of Phycology 96: 529-589.

Suffrian, K., Simonelli, P., Nejstgaard, J.C., Putzeys, S., Carotenuto, Y. and Antia, A.N. 2008. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels. Biogeosciences Discussions 5: 411-433.

Vogt, M., Steinke, M., Turner, S., Paulino, A., Meyerhofer, M., Riebesell, U., LeQuere, C. and Liss, P. 2008. Dynamics of dimethylsulphoniopropionate and dimethylsulphide under different CO2 concentrations during a mesocosm experiment. Biogeosciences 5: 407-419.

Wainwright, S.A. 1963. Skeletal organization in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science 104: 164-183.

Weis, V.M. 1993. Effect of dissolved inorganic carbon concentration on the photosynthesis of the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella Carlgren: role of carbonic anhydrase. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 174: 209-225.

Yamashiro, H. 1995. The effects of HEBP, an inhibitor of mineral deposition, upon photosynthesis and calcification in the scleractinian coral, Stylophora pistillata. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 191: 57-63.

Yonge, C.M. 1968. Living corals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 169: 329-344.

Zimmerman, R.C., Kohrs, D.G., Steller, D.L. and Alberte, R.S. 1997. Impacts of CO2 enrichment on productivity and light requirements of eelgrass. Plant Physiology 115: 599-607.

Zou, D.H., Gao, K.S. and Xia, J.R. 2003. Photosynthetic utilization of inorganic carbon in the economic brown alga, Hizikia fusiforme (Sargassaceae) from the South China Sea. Journal of Phycology 39: 1095-1100.