Percent Dry Weight (Biomass) Increases for
300, 600 and 900 ppm Increases in the Air's CO2 Concentration:


For a more detailed description of this table, click here.

Medicago sativa L. [Alfalfa]


Statistics
 
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm
 Number of Results
89
 
2
 Arithmetic Mean
37.3%
 
64%
 Standard Error
3.6%
 
0%

Individual Experiment Results

Journal References

Experimental Conditions
300 ppm
600 ppm
900 ppm

Agrell et al. (2004)

Plants grown from seed for seven weeks in individual 1.5-l pots supplied with slow release fertilizer in controlled environment chambers
40%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Leaf biomass of seedlings grown in 13-L pots for three years in polyethylene-covered temperature gradient tunnels at ambient temperature and high soil water content
4%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Leaf biomass of seedlings grown in 13-L pots for three years in polyethylene-covered temperature gradient tunnels at elevated temperature and high soil water content
50%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Leaf biomass of seedlings grown in 13-L pots for three years in polyethylene-covered temperature gradient tunnels at ambient temperature and low soil water content
20%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Leaf biomass of seedlings grown in 13-L pots for three years in polyethylene-covered temperature gradient tunnels at elevated temperature and ow soil water content
54%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in 13-liter pots in temperature gradient tunnels grown from the age of one month under well-watered conditions at ambient air temperature over three different years
17%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in 13-liter pots in temperature gradient tunnels grown from the age of one month under well-watered conditions at ambient +4C air temperature over three different years
34%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in 13-liter pots in temperature gradient tunnels grown from the age of one month under droughted conditions at ambient air temperature over three different years
-3%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2005)

Plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in 13-liter pots in temperature gradient tunnels grown from the age of one month under droughted conditions at ambient +4C air temperature over three different years
36%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2008)

Nodule biomass of thirty-day-old seedlings grown for 30 more days in two different years in 13-L pots filled with a 2:1 ratio of inert perlite and vermiculite recessed into the ground among other similar plants growing in a temperature-gradient greenhouse at ambient air temperature
6%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2008)

Nodule biomass of thirty-day-old seedlings grown for 30 more days in two different years in 13-L pots filled with a 2:1 ratio of inert perlite and vermiculite recessed into the ground among other similar plants growing in a temperature-gradient greenhouse at ambient + 4C air temperature
37%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2008)

Thirty-day-old seedlings grown for 30 more days in two different years in 13-L pots filled with a 2:1 ratio of inert perlite and vermiculite recessed into the ground among other similar plants growing in a temperature-gradient greenhouse at ambient air temperature
0%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2008)

Thirty-day-old seedlings grown for 30 more days in two different years in 13-L pots filled with a 2:1 ratio of inert perlite and vermiculite recessed into the ground among other similar plants growing in a temperature-gradient greenhouse at ambient + 4C air temperature
35%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2009)

Thirty-day-old plants (5 per each 2-liter pot filled with a 2:1 mix of perlite:vermiculate) grown for 30 more days in controlled environment chambers and maintained at a well-watered (WW, maximum soil water content)state
31%

 

 

Aranjuelo et al. (2009)

Thirty-day-old plants (5 per each 2-liter pot filled with a 2:1 mix of perlite:vermiculate) grown for 30 more days in controlled environment chambers and maintained at a water-deficient (WD, 50% of maximum soil water content) state
11%

 

 

Baslam et al. (2014)

Leaf biomass of well watered and fertilized seedlings growing in pots filled with a 2.5:2.5:1 mix of vermiculite:sand:light peat, without mycorrhizal inoculation (MI) in greenhouse environments of two different CO2 concentrations
35%

 

 

Baslam et al. (2014)

Leaf biomass of well watered and fertilized seedlings growing in pots filled with a 2.5:2.5:1 mix of vermiculite:sand:light peat, with mycorrhizal inoculation (MI) in greenhouse environments of two different CO2 concentrations
12%

 

 

Baslam et al. (2014)

Stem biomass of well watered and fertilized seedlings growing in pots filled with a 2.5:2.5:1 mix of vermiculite:sand:light peat, without mycorrhizal inoculation (MI) in greenhouse environments of two different CO2 concentrations
34%

 

 

Baslam et al. (2014)

Stem biomass of well watered and fertilized seedlings growing in pots filled with a 2.5:2.5:1 mix of vermiculite:sand:light peat, with mycorrhizal inoculation (MI) in greenhouse environments of two different CO2 concentrations
57%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007a)

Plants grown from seed in pots filled with non-sterile topsoil within environmentally-controlled growth chambers maintained at optimum conditions - and inoculated after one week with rhizobium strain A2 - for about 60 days, after which they were exposed to two weeks of cold-acclimating low temperature (2C)
50%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007a)

Plants grown from seed in pots filled with non-sterile topsoil within environmentally-controlled growth chambers maintained at optimum conditions - and inoculated after one week with rhizobium strain NRG34 - for about 60 days, after which they were exposed to two weeks of cold-acclimating low temperature (2C)
23%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007a)

Plants grown from seed in pots filled with non-sterile topsoil within environmentally-controlled growth chambers maintained at optimum conditions - and inoculated after one week with rhizobium strain A2 - for about 75 days, after which they were exposed to two weeks of cold-acclimating low temperature (2C)
25%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007a)

Plants grown from seed in pots filled with non-sterile topsoil within environmentally-controlled growth chambers maintained at optimum conditions - and inoculated after one week with rhizobium strain NRG34 - for about 75 days, after which they were exposed to two weeks of cold-acclimating low temperature (2C)
27%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007b)

Shoot biomass of well watered and fertilized plants inoculated with rhizobia (Sinorhizobium meliloti strain A2) grown from seed for 56 days ten to a pot of non-sterile topsoil in controlled environment chambers
53%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007b)

Root biomass of well watered and fertilized plants inoculated with rhizobia (Sinorhizobium meliloti strain A2) grown from seed for 56 days ten to a pot of non-sterile topsoil in controlled environment chambers
45%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007b)

Shoot biomass of well watered and fertilized plants inoculated with rhizobia (Sinorhizobium meliloti strain NRG34) grown from seed for 56 days ten to a pot of non-sterile topsoil in controlled environment chambers
36%

 

 

Bertrand et al. (2007b)

Root biomass of well watered and fertilized plants inoculated with rhizobia (Sinorhizobium meliloti strain NRG34) grown from seed for 56 days ten to a pot of non-sterile topsoil in controlled environment chambers
0%

 

 

Bunce (1993)

semi-open chambers, growth period 1
21%

 

 

Bunce (1993)

semi-open chambers, growth period 2
59%

 

 

Bunce (1993)

semi-open chambers, growth period 3
45%

 

 

Bunce (1993)

semi-open chambers, growth period 4
25%

 

 

Crush (1993)

controlled environment rooms,18/13 C day/night temperature
26%

 

 

Crush (1993)

controlled environment rooms,28/23 C day/night temperature
31%

 

 

De Luis et al. (1999)

controlled environment chambers,well-watered
157%

 

 

De Luis et al. (1999)

controlled environment chambers,water-stressed
133%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and pre-cutting
45%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and pre-cutting
69%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and pre-cutting
55%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and pre-cutting
14%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and pre-cutting
39%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and pre-cutting
48%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and pre-cutting
37%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and pre-cutting
27%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and post-cutting
13%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and post-cutting
36%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and post-cutting
57%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Leaf biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and post-cutting
19%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and post-cutting
-3%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of well-watered 30-day-old plants grown in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and post-cutting
58%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature (Tamb) and post-cutting
41%

 

 

Erice et al. (2006)

Stem biomass of 30-day-old plants grown under drought conditions in temperature-gradient greenhouses for an additional 60 days (with a cutting at the midpoint of the latter period) under ambient temperature plus 4C (Tamb + 4C) and post-cutting
32%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of ambient temperature (TA) and well-watered (to field capacity) conditions after one month of treatment (first cutting)
29%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of elevated temperature (TE = TA + 4C) and well-watered (to field capacity) conditions after one month of treatment (first cutting)
21%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of ambient temperature (TA) and water-stressed (50% field capacity) conditions after one month of treatment (first cutting)
10%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of elevated temperature (TE = TA + 4C) and water-stressed (50% field capacity) conditions after one month of treatment (first cutting)
6%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of ambient temperature (TA) and well-watered (to field capacity) conditions after two months of treatment (second cutting)
-6%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of elevated temperature (TE = TA + 4C) and well-watered (to field capacity) conditions after two months of treatment (second cutting)
40%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of ambient temperature (TA) and water-stressed (50% field capacity) conditions after two months of treatment (second cutting)
38%

 

 

Erice et al. (2007)

30-day-old nodulated alfalfa plants grown in two temperature-gradient greenhouses in an alfalfa field under conditions of elevated temperature (TE = TA + 4C) and water-stressed (50% field capacity) conditions after two months of treatment (second cutting)
31%

 

 

Goudriaan and de Ruiter (1983)

pots, greenhouse
10%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, effectively nodulating,low nitrogen, 1994
65%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, effectively nodulating,high nitrogen, 1994
55%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, effectively nodulating,low nitrogen, 1995
56%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, effectively nodulating,high nitrogen, 1995
59%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, ineffectively nodulating,low nitrogen, 1994
-29%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, ineffectively nodulating,high nitrogen, 1994
4%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, ineffectively nodulating,low nitrogen, 1995
-30%

 

 

Luscher et al. (2000)

FACE, ineffectively nodulating,high nitrogen, 1995
26%

 

 

Macdowall (1983)

pots, growth chambers
-17%

 

64%

Morgan et al. (2001)

growth chamber, low nitrogen
52%

 

 

Morgan et al. (2001)

growth chamber, high nitrogen
55%

 

 

Morison and Gifford (1984)

pots (3.2 kg soil)
98%

 

 

Reuveni and Gale (1985)

containers, growth chambers
9%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for eight weeks in summer (S) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at ambient temperature (T) in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F78 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
129%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for eight weeks in summer (S) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at ambient temperature (T) in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F34 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
41%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for eight weeks in summer (S) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at ambient temperature (T) in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 1032GMI strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
76%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for eight weeks in summer (S) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at T+ 4C - in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F78 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
60%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for eight weeks in summer (S) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at T+ 4C - in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F34 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
65%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for eight weeks in summer (S) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at T+ 4C - in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 1032GMI strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
55%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for nine weeks in autumn (A) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at ambient temperature (T) in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F78 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
48%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for nine weeks in autumn (A) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at ambient temperature (T) in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F34 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
26%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for nine weeks in autumn (A) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at ambient temperature (T) in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 1032GMI strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
47%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for nine weeks in autumn (A) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at T+ 4C - in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F78 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
-1%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for nine weeks in autumn (A) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at T+ 4C - in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 102F34 strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
169%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2012)

Well watered and fertilized (but lacking any added nitrogen) plants grown for nine weeks in autumn (A) within temperature gradient greenhouses - at T+ 4C - in 13-L pots filled with a 2/1 by volume mix of perlite and vermiculite, each pot containing 20 seedlings inoculated with the 1032GMI strain of Sinorhizobium melilota
94%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2010)

Well watered and fertilized 30-day-old plants inoculated with the N2-fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterium and growing 4 plants to each 2-L pot (filled with a 2:1 mix of perlite and vermiculite) within growth chambers where they were maintained at NH4NO3 fertilization levels of 0 mM
23%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2010)

Well watered and fertilized 30-day-old plants inoculated with the N2-fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterium and growing 4 plants to each 2-L pot (filled with a 2:1 mix of perlite and vermiculite) within growth chambers where they were maintained at NH4NO3 fertilization levels of 10 mM
11%

 

 

Sanz-Saez et al. (2010)

Well watered and fertilized 30-day-old plants inoculated with the N2-fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti bacterium and growing 4 plants to each 2-L pot (filled with a 2:1 mix of perlite and vermiculite) within growth chambers where they were maintained at NH4NO3 fertilization levels of 15 mM
39%

 

 

Zebian and Reekie (1998)

Plants grown under high light for six days in 50-ml vials containing 0.6% agar
1%

 

 

Zebian and Reekie (1998)

Plants grown under high light for six days in 50-ml vials containing 0.6% agar
 

 

64%

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