Moreno, A., Perez, A., Frigola, J., Nieto-Moreno, V., Rodrigo-Gamiz, M., Martrat, B., Gonzalez-Samperiz, P., Morellon, M., Martin-Puertas, C., Corella, J.P., Belmonte, A., Sancho, C., Cacho, I., Herrera, G., Canals, M., Grimalt, J.O., Jimenez-Espejo, F., Martinez-Ruiz, F., Vegas-Vilarrubia, T. and Valero-Garces, B.L. 2012. The Medieval Climate Anomaly in the Iberian Peninsula reconstructed from marine and lake records. Quaternary Science Reviews 43: 16-32.
Utilizing "recently published and new Iberian paleoenvironmental records for the last two millennia that fulfill the following requisites: (1) the paleoclimate interpretations were based on multi-proxy reconstructions; and (2) the chronology was independent, based on calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dates and 137Cs/210Pb models," Moreno et al. "undertook the first synthesis of the environmental response in the region during the MCA [Medieval Climate Anomaly] (900-1300 AD), and characterized and integrated the signals recorded from the marine and terrestrial realms." This work, as they describe it, highlights "the unique characteristics of the MCA relative to earlier (the Dark Ages, DA: ca 500-900 years AD) and the subsequent (the Little Ice Age, LIA: 1300-1850 years AD) colder periods [italics added]."